This book presents a collection of essays on some of the main aspects of human–animal interaction in Brazil, aiming to shed light on the legal, economic, socio-environmental, and ethical dimensions of it. The first essay addresses the profound transformations in the consumption and production of animal-sourced foods that took place over the last five decades in the country. The authors examine the consequences of this phenomenon for the lives of animals, the health of the population, and the environment. The next essay offers an analysis of the animal welfare and animal protection legislation in Brazil. The following chapter presents a number of notable cases involving animal advocacy and activism in recent years. The last section deals with certain historical, sociocultural, and economic aspects that influence the Brazilian ethos regarding the morality of the treatment of animals.