Gonococcal and Nongonococcal Bacterial Infections

  • Ignacio García-De La Torre
  • Yelitza Concepción González-Bello


Among gonococcal and nongonococcal bacterial infections, septic arthritis continues to be a medical emergency, and diagnosis continues to be challenging. When assessing a patient with clinical features such as acute onset of localized joint pain, tenderness, swelling, and decreased joint motion, it is important to keep in mind infectious arthritis. Infectious arthritis is caused by bacteria, fungi, mycobacteria, and viruses. However, bacterial infectious arthritis is classically divided into gonococcal and nongonococcal arthritis.

Typical risk factors for the development of septic arthritis include previous joint pathology (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis), joint prosthesis, intravenous drug abuse, alcoholism, systemic disorders, skin infections, previous intra-articular injection, or arthroscopy.

Diagnosis is still mainly based on isolating the pathogen; treatment must begin immediately with a broad spectrum antibiotic until a particular pathogen is isolated. Prognosis depends on early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic therapy because delay in diagnosis and treatment can lead to irreversible joint damage and increase complications. Treatment often requires a multidisciplinary approach involving orthopedic surgery, infectious disease evaluation, and physical therapy. Here, we present a brief review of the most common types of bacterial infectious arthritis: gonococcal or nongonococcal.


Arthritis Septic arthritis Bacterial arthritis Bacterial infection Joint infection Gonococcal Nongonococcal 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ignacio García-De La Torre
    • 1
  • Yelitza Concepción González-Bello
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Immunology and RheumatologyHospital General de Occidente and University of GuadalajaraGuadalajaraMexico
  2. 2.Department of Rheumatology, Centro de Estudios de Investigación Básica y Clínica, S.C. (CEIBAC, SC)GuadalajaraMexico

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