Advertisement

Histoplasmosis: Musculoskeletal Manifestations

  • Luis Fernando Pinto Peñaranda
Chapter

Abstract

Histoplasma capsulatum is an endemic fungus in several states of the south of the United States, in Central America and South America. Histoplasma duboisii is endemic in Africa. Histoplasmosis may manifest as acute, subacute or chronic lung disease, pulmonary nodules, pericarditis, or progressive disseminated forms. Rheumatologic manifestations are rare. It can present as reactive arthritis, bone, joint or muscle infection, panniculitis and spondylitis, or systemic diseases such as ANCA vasculitis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory myoptosis, adult onset Still’s disease, sarcoidosis or systemic lupus erythematosus. Histoplasmosis is the second opportunistic infection in patients treated with TNFi but has also been described in patients treated with steroids, methotrexate, leflunomide and abatacept. The gold standard for diagnosis of histoplasmosis is the demonstration of yeasts in tissues and/or their isolation in culture or body fluids; however, there is not always access to these specimens for which serological tests, antigen detection, and molecular biology techniques are employed. Mild cases can be treated with itraconazole from the beginning, but in severe cases, it is necessary to initiate amphotericin B, especially in liposomal form. After 1–2 weeks with amphotericin B (4–6 weeks for CNS histoplasmosis), the treatment with itraconazole can be consolidated.

Keywords

Histoplasmosis Histoplasma capsulatum Pulmonary histoplasmosis Erythema nodosum Disseminated histoplasmosis Osteoarticular infection Amphotericin B 

References

  1. 1.
    Benedict K, Mody RK. Epidemiology of histoplasmosis outbreaks, United States, 1938-2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(3):370–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Centers for Disease Control. Fungal diseases. Histoplasmosis. www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/histoplasmosis.
  3. 3.
    Ashford DA, Hajjeh RA, Kelley MF, et al. Outbreak of histoplasmosis among cavers attending the national speleological society annual convention, Texas, 1994. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999;60(6):899–903.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Azar M, Hage CH. Clinical perspectives in the diagnosis and management of histoplasmosis. Clin Chest Med. 2017;38(3):403–15.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Marukutira T, Huprikar S, Azie N, Quan SP, Meier-Kriesche HU, Horn DL. Clinical characteristics and outcomes in 303 HIV-infected patients with invasive fungal infections: data from the Prospective Antifungal Therapy Alliance registry, a multicenter, observational study. HIV AIDS (Auckl). 2014;6:39–47.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Myint T, Anderson AM, Sanchez A, et al. Histoplasmosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS): multicenter study of outcomes and factors associated with relapse. Medicine (Baltimore). 2014;93(1):11–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cuellar-Rodriguez J, Avery RK, Lard M, Budev M, Gordon SM, Shrestha NK, et al. Histoplasmosis in solid organ transplant recipients: 10 years of experience at a large transplant center in an endemic area. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49(5):710–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Assi M, Martin S, Wheat LJ, et al. Histoplasmosis after solid organ transplant. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57(11):1542–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    McKinsey DS, McKinsey JP. Pulmonary histoplasmosis. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;32(6):735–44.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lee JH, Slifman NR, Gershon SK, Edwards ET, Schwieterman W, Siegel JN, et al. Life-threatening histoplasmosis complicating immunotherapy with tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonists infliximab and etanercept. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;46(10):2565–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wood KL, Hage CA, Knox KS, et al. Histoplasmosis after treatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003;167(9):1279–82.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Witty LA, Steiner F, Curfman M, Webb D, Wheat LJ. Disseminated histoplasmosis in patients receiving low-dose methotrexate therapy for psoriasis. Arch Dermatol. 1992;128:91–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    LeMense GP, Sahn SA. Opportunistic infection during treatment with low dose methotrexate. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1994;150:258–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Roy V, Hammerschmidt DE. Disseminated histoplasmosis following prolonged low-dose methotrexate therapy [letter]. Am J Hematol. 2000;63:59–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Smith JG, Magee DM, Williams DM, Graybill JR. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha plays a role in host defense against Histoplasma capsulatum. J Infect Dis. 1990;162:1349–53.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Deepe GS, Bullock WE. Immunological aspects of fungal pathogenesis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1990;9:567–79.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wu-Hsieh BA, Lee G-S, Franco M, Hofman FM. Early activation of splenic macrophages by tumor necrosis factor alpha is important in determining the outcome of experimental histoplasmosis in mice. Infect Immun. 1992;60:4230–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhou P, Miller G, Seder RA. Factors involved in regulating primary and secondary immunity to infection with Histoplasma capsulatum: TNF-alpha plays a critical role in maintaining secondary immunity in the absence of IFN- gamma. J Immunol. 1998;160:1 359–68.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Allendorfer R, Brunner GD, Deepe GS Jr. Complex requirements for nascent and memory immunity in pulmonary histoplasmosis. J Immunol. 1999;162:7389–96.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Deepe GS Jr, Gibbons R, Woodward E. Neutralization of endogenous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor subverts the protective immune response to histoplasma capsulatum. J Immunol. 1999;163:4985–93.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Assi MA, Sandid MS, Baddour LM, Roberts GD, Walker RC. Systemic histoplasmosis: a 15-year retrospective institutional review of 111 patients. Medicine. 2007;86:162–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wheat L. Current diagnosis of histoplasmosis. Trends Microbiol. 2003;11(10):488–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Goodwin R, Shapiro J, Thurman G, et al. Disseminated histoplasmosis: clinical and pathologic correlations. Medicine (Baltimore). 1980;59:1–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pérez C, Yoanet S, Rodríguez G. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in a patient with AIDS. Biomedica. 2006;26(4):485–97.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sizemore T. Rheumatologic manifestations of histoplasmosis: a review. Rheumatol Int.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00296-013-2816-y.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rosenthal J, Brandt KD, Wheat LJ, Slama TG. Rheumatologic manifestations of histoplasmosis in the recent Indianapolis epidemic. Arthritis Rheum. 1983;26:1065–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sellers TF Jr, Price WN Jr, Newbery WM Jr. An epidemic of erythema multiforme and erythema nodosum caused by histoplasmosis. Ann Intern Med. 1965;62:1244–62.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Darouiche RO, Cadle RM, Zenon GJ, Weinert MF, Hamill RJ, Lidsky MD. Articular histoplasmosis. J Rheumatol. 1992;19:1991–3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Filali SM, Faik A, Allali F, Jahid A, Chihab W, El Hassani S, Hassouni NH. Histoplasma capsulatum tenosynovitis in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis-scleroderma overlap syndrome. Joint Bone Spine. 2006;73(4):479–81.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lim SY, Kijsirichareanchai K, Winn R. Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis in systemic lupus erythematosus—an unusual presentation of acute tenosynovitis and a literature review. Rheumatology. 2013;32(1):135–9.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fowler VG Jr, Nacinovich FM, Alspaugh JA, Corey GR. Prosthetic joint infection due to Histoplasma capsulatum: case report and review. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;26(4):1017.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Verhaert K, Rodriquez M, Mendoza G, Delgadillo J, Casaer P. Polyarthritis and humeral epiphyseal separation in an infant with acute disseminated histoplasmosis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002;21(4):352–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Azar M, Malinis M. Case report: disseminated histoplasmosis with skin lesions and osteomyelitis in a patient from the Philippines. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016;95(1):70–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Huang L, Wu Y, Miao X. Localized Histoplasma capsulatum osteomyelitis of the fibula in an immunocompetent teenage boy: a case report. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:132.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    McCabe MP, Heck RK. Histoplasma osteomyelitis simulating giant-cell tumor of the distal part of the radius: a case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010;92:708–14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Liu B, Qu L, Zhu J, Yang Z, Yan S. Histoplasmosis mimicking metastatic spinal tumour. J Int Med Res. 2017;45(4):1440–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    de Morais SS, Mafra Mde O, Canterle EM, et al. Histoplasmosis mimicking tuberculosis spondylodiscitis in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Acta Reumatol Port. 2008;33:360–3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ceccato F, Gongora V, Zunino A, Roverano S, Paira S. Unusual manifestation of histoplasmosis in connective tissue diseases. Clin Rheumatol. 2007;26:1717–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sen D, Birns J, Rahman A. Articular presentation of disseminated histoplasmosis. Clin Rheumatol. 2007;26(5):823–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Alonso D, Muñoz J, Letang E, et al. Imported acute histoplasmosis with rheumatological manifestations in Spanish travelers. J Travel Med. 2007;14:338–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Thornberry DK, Wheat LJ, Brandt KD, Rosenthal J. Histoplasmosis presenting with joint pain and hilar adenopathy. “Pseudosarcoidosis”. Arthritis Rheum. 1982;25(12):1396–402.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Davis KA, Finger DR, Shparago NI. Disseminated histoplasmosis mimicking Felty’s syndrome. J Clin Rheumatol. 2002;8(1):38–43.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Negri M, Gontero R, Benavente E, Zunino A, Ceccato F, Paira S. Manifestaciones inusuales de histoplasmosis en enfermedades del tejido conectivo. Rev Argent Reumatol. 2012;23(2):26–39.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Antonello V, Zaltron V, Vial M, et al. Oropharyngeal histoplasmosis: report of eleven cases and review of the literature. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2011;44:26–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lehur AC, Zielinski M, Pluvy J, Grégoire V, Diamantis S, Bleibtreu A, et al. Case of disseminated histoplasmosis in a HIV-infected patient revealed by nasal involvement with maxillary osteolysis. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:328–33.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Jaimes A, Muvdi S, Alvarado Z, Rodríguez G. Perforation of the nasal septum as the first sign of histoplasmosis associated with AIDS and review of published literature. Mycopathologia. 2013;176(1–2):145–50.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Márquez J, Aguirre L, Muñoz C, Echeverri A, Restrepo M, Pinto LF. Cocaine-Levamisole-induced vasculitis/vasculopathy syndrome. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2017;19:36–40.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Muñoz-Vahos CH, Herrera-Uribe S, Arbeláez-Cortés Á, Jaramillo-Arroyave D, González-Naranjo LA, Vásquez-Duque G, et al. Clinical profile of Levamisole – Adulterated – Cocaine – Induced vasculitis/vasculopathy. A 30 case series. J Clin Rheumatol. 2019;25:e16.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bourre´ -Tessier J, Fortin C, Belisle A, Desmarais E, Choquette D, Senécal JL. Disseminated Histoplasma capsulatum infection presenting with panniculitis and focal myositis in rheumatoid arthritis treated with etanercept. Scand J Rheumatol. 2009;38:311–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Posada Giraldo C, Romero JD, Velásquez Franco CJ, Márquez Hernández JD, Trujillo Correa MC, Mestra Palomino L. Histoplasmosis como causa de paniculitis en lupus eritematoso sistémico y dermatomiositis: reporte de dos casos y revisión de la literatura. Rev Colomb Reumatol. 2012;19(1):59–63.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Huston JW, McNabb PC, Frias JP. Histoplasma panniculitis in dermatomyositis. J Clin Rheumatol. 1997;3:353–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Arunkumar P, Crook T, Ballard J. Disseminated histoplasmosis presenting as pancytopenia in a methotrexate-treated patient. Am J Hematol. 2004;77:86–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Dussouil AS, Allardet-Servent J, Dunogeant L, Grauer JL, Ranque S, Nasser V. Disseminated histoplasmosis partially mimicking a dermatomyositis in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Dermatol. 2015;173:797–800.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kourbeti IS, Ziakas PD, Mylonakis E. Biologic therapies in rheumatoid arthritis and the risk of opportunistic infections: a meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58:1649–57.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wallis RS, Broder MS, Wong JY, Hanson ME, Beenhouwer DO. Granulomatous infectious diseases associated with tumor necrosis factor antagonists. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38:1261–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Winthrop KL, Yamashita S, Beekmann SE, Polgreen PM. Mycobacterial and other serious infections in patients receiving anti–tumor necrosis necrosis factor and other newly approved biologic therapies: case finding through the Emerging Infections Network. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:1738–40.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    US Food and Drug Administration. Information for healthcare professionals: cimzia (certolizumab pegol), enbrel (etanercept), humira (adalimumab), and remicade (infliximab). 4 September 2008. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/PostmarketDrugSafetyInformationforPatientsandProviders/default.htm Accessed 13 Nov 2009.
  58. 58.
    Bryant P, Baddley J. Opportunistic infections in biological therapy, risk and prevention. Rheum Dis Clin N Am. 2017;43(1):20–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Zhou P, Miller G, Seder RA. Factors involved in regulating primary and secondary immunity to infection with Histoplasma capsulatum: TNF-alpha plays a critical role in maintaining secondary immunity in the absence of IFN - gamma. J Immunol. 1998;160:1359–68.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Salmon-Ceron D, Tubach F, Lortholary O, et al. Drug-specific risk of nontuberculosis opportunistic infections in patients receiving anti-TNF therapy reported to the 3-year prospective French RATIO registry. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011;70:616–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Scallon BJ, Moore MA, Trinh H, Knight DM, Ghrayeb J. Chimeric anti-TNF- monoclonal antibody cA2 binds recombinant transmembrane TNF- and activates immune effector functions. Cytokine. 1995;7:251–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lugering A, Schmidt M, Lugering N, Pauels H-G, Domschke W, Kucharzik T. Infliximab induces apoptosis in monocytes from patients with chronic active Crohn’s disease by using a caspase dependent pathway. Gastroenterology. 2001;121:1145–57.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hage CA, Bowyer S, Tarvin SE, et al. Recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of histoplasmosis complicating tumor necrosis factor blocker therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50:85–92.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Tsiodras S, Samonis G, Boumpas DT, et al. Fungal infections complicating tumor necrosis factor alpha blockade therapy. Mayo Clin Proc. 2008;83:181–94.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Olson TC, Bongartz T, Crowson CS, et al. Histoplasmosis infection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 1998-2009. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;23(11):145–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Vergidis P, Avery RK, Wheat LJ, et al. Histoplasmosis complicating tumor necrosis factor-alpha blocker therapy: a retrospective analysis of 98 cases. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61(3):409–17.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Belknap R, Reves R, Burman W. Immune reconstitution to Mycobacterium tuberculosis after discontinuing infliximab. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2005;9:1057–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    De Lavaissiere M, Manceron V, Bouree P, et al. Reconstitution inflammatory syndrome related to histoplasmosis, with a hemophagocytic syndrome in HIV infection. J Infect. 2009;58:245–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Wheat LJ, Freifeld AG, Kleiman MB, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of patients with histoplasmosis: 2007 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45(7):807–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Wheat J, French ML, Kohler RB, et al. The diagnostic laboratory tests for histoplasmosis analysis of experience in a large urban outbreak. Ann Intern Med. 1982;97(5):680–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Wheat LJ. Laboratory diagnosis of histoplasmosis: update 2000. Semin Respir Infect. 2001;16(2):131–40.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Wheat LJ. Improvements in diagnosis of histoplasmosis. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2006;6:1207–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    CSTE. Standardized surveillance case definition for histoplasmosis. Atlanta: Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists; 2016. http://www.cste.org/resource/resmgr/2016PS/16_ID_02.pdf.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    De Pauw B, Walsh TJ, Donnelly JP, Stevens DA, Edwards JE, Calandra T, et al. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) Consensus Group. Revised definitions of invasive fungal disease from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) Consensus Group. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:1813–21.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kauffman CA. Histoplasmosis: a clinical and laboratory update. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2007;20:115–32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Santiago AR, Hernandez B, Rodriguez M, Romero H. A comparative study of blood culture conventional method vs. a modified lysis/centrifugation technique for the diagnosis of fungemias. Rev Iberoam Micol. 2004;21:198–201.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Vetter E, Torgerson C, Feuker A, Hughes J, Harmsen S, Schleck C, Horstmeier C, Roberts G, Cockerill F III. Comparison of the BACTEC MYCO/F Lytic bottle to the isolator tube, BACTEC Plus Aerobic F/bottle, and BACTEC Anaerobic Lytic/10 bottle and comparison of the BACTEC Plus Aerobic F/bottle to the Isolator tube for recovery of bacteria, mycobacteria, and fungi from blood. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:4380–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gupta N, Arora SK, Rajwanshi A, Nijhawan R, Srinivasan R. Histoplasmosis: cytodiagnosis and review of literature with special emphasis on differential diagnosis on cytomorphology. Cytopathology. 2010;21:240.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hage CA, Ribes JA, Wengenack NL, et al. A multicenter evaluation of tests for diagnosis of histoplasmosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53(5):448–54.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Swartzentruber S, LeMonte A, Witt J, et al. Improved detection of Histoplasma antigenemia following dissociation of immune complexes. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:320–2.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    LeMonte A, Egan L, Connolly P, Durkin M, Wheat LJ. Evaluation of the IMMY ALPHA histoplasma antigen enzyme immunoassay for diagnosis of histoplasmosis marked by antigenuria. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2007;14:802–3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Wheat LJ, Kohler RB, French ML, et al. Immunoglobulin M and G histoplasmal antibody response in histoplasmosis. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1983;128(1):65–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ranque S, Pelletier R, Michel-Nguyen A, Dromer F. Platelia Aspergillus assay for diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007;26:941–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Zhang C, Lei GS, Lee CH, Hage CA. Evaluation of two new enzyme immunoassay reagents for diagnosis of histoplasmosis in a cohort of clinically characterized patients. Med Mycol. 2015;53:868–73.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Theel ES, Jespersen DJ, Harring J, Mandrekar J, Binnicker MJ. Evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay for detection of Histoplasma capsulatum antigen from urine specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:3555–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Richer SM, Smedema ML, Durkin MM, et al. Improved diagnosis of acute pulmonary histoplasmosis by combining antigen and antibody detection. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62(7):896–902.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    da Silva RM Jr, da Silva Neto JR, Santos CS, et al. Fluorescent in situ hybridization of preincubated blood culture material for the rapid diagnosis of histoplasmosis. Med Mycol. 2015;53(2):160–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Dantas KC, Freitas RS, Moreira AP, Silva MV, Benard G, Vasconcellos C, et al. The use of nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (nested PCR) for the early diagnosis of Histoplasma capsulatum infection in serum and whole blood of HIV positive patients. An Bras Dermatol. 2013;88:141–3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bialek R, Ernst F, Dietz K, Najvar LK, Knobloch J, Graybill JR, et al. Comparison of staining methods and a nested PCR assay to detect Histoplasma capsulatum in tissue sections. Am J Clin Pathol. 2002;117:597–603.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Mocherla S, Wheat LJ. Treatment of histoplasmosis. Semin Respir Infect. 2001;16(2):141–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Johnson PC, Wheat LJ, Cloud GA, et al. Safety and efficacy of liposomal amphotericin B compared with conventional amphotericin B for induction therapy of histoplasmosis in patients with AIDS. Ann Intern Med. 2002;137(2):105–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Wheat J, Sarosi G, McKinsey D, et al. Practice guidelines for the management of patients with histoplasmosis. Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;30:688–95.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Galli M, Antinori S, Atzeni F, Meroni L, Riva A, Scirè C, et al. Recommendations for the management of pulmonary fungal infections in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2017;35(6):1018–28.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luis Fernando Pinto Peñaranda
    • 1
  1. 1.Internal Medicine, RheumatologyHospital Pablo Tobón Uribe – Universidad CESMedellinColombia

Personalised recommendations