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Breeding Strategies for Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Genetic Improvement

  • Saeed Rauf
Chapter

Abstract

Sunflower is well known as an important oilseed crop and also consumed roasted, as a confectionary and bird feed. The plant has been subjected to the improvement by plant breeders resulting in the yellow revolution in many countries. Russian plant breeders have improved the oil content of sunflower seed that converted this crop from a roadside plant to a world famous oilseed crop. The cultivated germplasm retains 50% of genetic diversity present in crop wild relatives. This may be threatened due to worldwide hybrid cultivation which shares common parentage and a source of cytoplasmic male sterility. Therefore, there is a need to use the available genetic diversity within cultivated and wild germplasm to develop pre-breeding lines and elite breeding material with good combining quality. Sunflower breeding involves development of breeding lines suitable for hybrid breeding, diseases, abiotic stress and herbicide resistance. These objectives are fulfilled by recurrent selection for population improvement. Wide crosses were made to transfer cytoplasmic male sterility, diseases, abiotic and Orobanche resistance. Moreover, induced mutations were used to create new genetic variability for diseases and herbicide resistance and reduction of plant height. Marker-assisted selection has been validated for rust resistance, downy mildew resistance, and oleic acid content and fertility restorer genes. Transgenic sunflower development could be used to enhance oil content and quality. Sunflower breeding will be greatly facilitated by genomic tools such as CRISPR/Cas and whole genome association mapping.

Keywords

Breeding objectives Crop wild relatives Combining ability Cytoplasmic male sterility Resistant genes Stability 

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saeed Rauf
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, College of AgricultureUniversity of SargodhaSargodhaPakistan

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