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Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.): Breeding and Genomics

  • Shriram J. Mirajkar
  • Rachayya M. Devarumath
  • Ashok A. Nikam
  • Kapil V. Sushir
  • Harinath Babu
  • Penna SuprasannaEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is cultivated and credited worldwide for its ability to synthesize and store exceptionally high concentration of sucrose. Since prehistoric times sugarcane cultivation has undergone many transformations into present-day noble cane. Initially, selection of desirable clones and interspecific hybrids brought many agronomically-useful traits into the cultivated species. Wild related species played a major role as the donor for most of the desirable traits through gene introgression. Pre-breeding strategies and intergeneric hybridization have played a crucial role in development of noble high-yielding canes. Cultivated sugarcane has been further enriched with other valuable traits such as high fiber, high fermentable sugar and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. Despite its genomic complexity, crossability barriers within the genus, long breeding and selection cycles, etc., remarkable progress has been achieved to develop a wide range of cultivars, hybrids and mutants suitable for different agroclimatic conditions. Germplasm collections, preservation and their utilization for development of an ideotype bearing desirable traits has become a research priority. For this purpose, molecular-marker tools are acting as potential drivers during pre-breeding and selection of desirable progenies. Supplementary tools such as in vitro culture, isolation of somaclones, induced mutagenesis and transgenics have played an essential role in the generation of novel genetic variability. In recent decades much emphasis has been given to enrich sugarcane breeding strategies; however, future avenues need to be focused on the utilization of inexhaustible and wealthy sugarcane genomic resources and advancements made through biotechnological interventions.

Keywords

Saccharum Genetic Ideotype breeding Mutagenesis Interspecific hybrids Somaclonal variation Synteny Transgenics 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shriram J. Mirajkar
    • 1
  • Rachayya M. Devarumath
    • 2
  • Ashok A. Nikam
    • 3
  • Kapil V. Sushir
    • 4
  • Harinath Babu
    • 2
  • Penna Suprasanna
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyDr. D. Y. Patil Arts, Commerce and Science College, PimpriPuneIndia
  2. 2.Molecular Biology and Genetic EngineeringVasantdada Sugar InstitutePuneIndia
  3. 3.Plant Tissue Culture LaboratoryVasantdada Sugar InstitutePuneIndia
  4. 4.Sugarcane Breeding SectionVasantdada Sugar InstitutePuneIndia
  5. 5.Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology DivisionBhabha Atomic Research CentreMumbaiIndia

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