Results – Young L2 Learners

  • Gila A. Schauer
Part of the English Language Education book series (ELED, volume 18)


In this chapter, I will compare the output of young EFL learners attending a typical state primary school in Thuringia with that of their age peers attending an English immersion school in the same state. I will first analyse and discuss the results of three written tasks: Task 1 is a matching words and images task, task 2 is an L1-L2 word-matching task and task 3 is an illustrated discourse completion task that was employed to elicit basic speech acts. I will then analyse and discuss the results of the interactive spoken tasks the young L2 learners completed: greetings and simple interactions, colours and numbers, total physical response, translation, requests and the concluding goodbye task. This will be followed by a summary of all findings of this chapter.


Interlanguage pragmatics Immersion contexts EFL EFL learners Young EFL learners Young L2 learners Vocabulary Speech acts Data collection techniques Data collection methods and young learners 


  1. Bardovi-Harlig, K. (2003). Understanding the role of grammar in the acquisition of L2 pragmatics. In A. M. Flor, A. F. Guerra, & E. U. Juan (Eds.), Pragmatic competence and foreign language teaching (pp. 25–44). Castelló de la Plana: Publicaciones de la Universitat Jaume I.Google Scholar
  2. Bardovi-Harlig, K. (2012). Formulas, routines, and conventional expressions in pragmatics research. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 32, 206–227. Scholar
  3. Bardovi-Harlig, K., & Dörnyei, Z. (1998). Do language learners recognize pragmatic violations? Pragmatic vs. grammatical awareness in instructed L2 learning. TESOL Quarterly, 33(2), 233–259. Scholar
  4. Cameron, L. (2001). Teaching languages to young learners. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  6. Dörnyei, Z., & Ryan, S. (2015). The psychology of the language learner revisited. Abingdon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hall, G. (2011). Exploring English language teaching: Language in action. Abingdon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hestetræet, T. I. (2019). Vocabulary teaching for young learners. In S. Garton & F. Copland (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of teaching English to young learners (pp. 300–317). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Leech, G. (2014). The pragmatics of politeness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. MacIntyre, P., Dörnyei, Z., Clément, R., & Noels, K. A. (1989). Conceptualizing willingness to communicate in a L2: A situational model of L2 confidence and affiliation. The Modern Language Journal, 82(4), 545–562. Scholar
  11. Niezgoda, K., & Roever, C. (2001). Pragmatic and grammatical awareness. In K. R. Rose & G. Kasper (Eds.), Pragmatics in language teaching (pp. 63–79). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Schauer, G. A. (2006). Pragmatic awareness in ESL and EFL contexts: Contrast and development. Language Learning, 56(2), 269–318. Scholar
  13. Schauer, G. A. (2009). Interlanguage pragmatic development: The study abroad context. London: Continuum/Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  14. Schauer, G. A. (2018). Foreign language pragmatic development in an instructed context – investigating input and output. Plenary held at the Teaching and Learning L2 Pragmatics Conference at University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK, 28th – 29th June 2018.Google Scholar
  15. Schauer, G. A., & Adolphs, S. (2006). Expressions of gratitude in corpus and DCT data: Vocabulary, formulaic sequences, and pedagogy. System, 34(1), 119–134. Scholar
  16. Siemund, P. (2018). Speech acts and clause types: English in a cross-linguistic context. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Skehan, P. (1989). Individual differences in second-language learning. London: Arnold.Google Scholar
  18. Stevens, J. (2018). Englisch Alltagstauglich: Die wichtigsten Sätze zum Mitreden. München: Hueber.Google Scholar
  19. Thüringer Ministerium für Bildung, Wissenschaft und Kultur. (2010). Lehrplan für die Grundschule und für die Förderschule mit dem Bildungsgang der Grundschule: Fremdsprache. Erfurt: Thüringer Ministerium für Bildung, Wissenschaft und Kultur.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gila A. Schauer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of LinguisticsUniversity of ErfurtErfurtGermany

Personalised recommendations