Advertisement

Non-majoritarian Institutions, Conditionality and Domestic Reform

  • Dionyssis Dimitrakopoulos
  • Argyris Passas
Chapter

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is twofold. First, it places this reform in its broader context, i.e. the increasing use of non-majoritarian institutions and executive agencies that operate at arm’s length from the government in advanced liberal democracies (and beyond). This reform exemplifies this trend. The key element of this reform—and the central idea behind it—is the notion of depoliticisation. The first section of this chapter explores this notion. The second section discusses the logic that underpins the increasing use of these institutions, and then highlights their limitations, especially in terms of design, accountability and effectiveness. The chapter’s second purpose is to set out the logic of the key tool (conditionality) used for the purpose of bringing about this domestic reform in Greece. The final section discusses the logic of conditionality, sets out its main characteristics in the European Union’s context and then presents the three hypotheses that are examined empirically in the remainder of this book.

References

  1. Babb, Sarah. 2013. “The Washington Consensus as transnational policy paradigm: Its origins, trajectory and likely successor.” Review of International Political Economy 20 (2):268-297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bach, Tobias. 2012. “The involvement of agencies in policy formulation: explaining variation in policy autonomy of federal agencies in Germany.” Policy and Society 31 (3):211-222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bendor, J., A. Glazer, and T. Hammond. 2001. “Theories of delegation.” Annual Review of Political Science 4 (1):235-269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bird, Graham. 2001. “IMF Programs: Do They Work? Can They be Made to Work Better?” World Development 29 (11):1849-1865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blavoukos, Spyros, and George Pagoulatos. 2008. “The Limits of EMU Conditionality: Fiscal Adjustment in Southern Europe.” Journal of Public Policy 28 (2):229-253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Börzel, Tanja A., and Thomas Risse. 2003. “Conceptualising the domestic impact of Europe.” In The Politics of Europeanization, edited by Kevin Featherstone and Claudio Radaelli, 55-78. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Boughton, James A., and Alex Mourmouras. 2002. Is policy ownership an operational concept? Washington, D.C.: IMF.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brondolo, John. 2009. Collecting Taxes During an Economic Crisis: Challenges and Policy Options. Fiscal Affairs Department/IMF. Washington, D.C.: IMF.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Buira, Ariel. 2003. An analysis of IMF conditionality. Paper prepared for the XVI Technical group meeting of the Intergovernmental Group of 24. Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, February 13-14.Google Scholar
  10. Buller, Jim, Pınar E. Dönmez, Adam Standring, and Matthew Wood. 2019. “Depoliticisation, Post-politics and the Problem of Change.” In Comparing Strategies of (De)Politicisation in Europe: Governance, Resistance and Anti-politics, edited by Jim Buller, Pınar E. Dönmez, Adam Standring and Matthew Wood, 1-24. Basingstoke: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burnham, Peter. 2001. “New Labour and the politics of depoliticisation.” The British Journal of Politics & International Relations 3 (2):127-149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Castles, Francis G., ed. 1982. The Impact of Parties: Politics and Policies in Democratic Capitalist States. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  13. Checkel, Jeffrey T. 2000. Compliance and Conditionality. Oslo: ARENA.Google Scholar
  14. Checkel, Jeffrey T. 2001. “Why comply? Social learning and European identity change.” International Organization 55 (3):553-88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cortell, Andrew P., and James W. Davis Jr. 1996. “How do international institutions matter? The domestic impact of international rules and norms.” International Studies Quarterly 40 (4):451-78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Council of the EU. 2011a. Council Directive 2011/85/EU of 8 November 2011 on requirements for budgetary frameworks of the Member States. Official Journal of the European Union L 306, 23 November.Google Scholar
  17. Council of the EU. 2011b. Council Regulation (EU) No 1177/2011 of 8 November 2011 amending Regulation (EC) No 1467/97 on speeding up and clarifying the implementation of the excessive deficit procedure. Official Journal of the European Union, L306, 23 November.Google Scholar
  18. Crandall, William. 2010. Revenue Administration: Autonomy in Tax Administration and the Revenue Authority Model. Fiscal Affairs Department. Washington, D.C.: IMF.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Crouch, Colin. 2004. Post-Democracy, Themes for the 21st Century. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  20. Dahlström, Carl. 2009. Political appointments in 18 democracies, 1975–2007. Gothenburg: University of Gothenburg/The Quality of Government Institute.Google Scholar
  21. Dahlström, Carl, and Birgitta Niklasson. 2013. “The politics of politicization in Sweden.” Public Administration 91 (4):891-907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dean, Jonathan. 2013. “Tales of the Apolitical.” Political Studies 62 (2):452-467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dijkstra, A. Geske. 2002. “The effectiveness of policy conditionality: eight country experiences.” Development and Change 33 (2):307-334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. DiMaggio, Paul J., and Walter W. Powell. 1991. “The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organization Fields.” In The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis, edited by Walter W. Powell and Paul J. DiMaggio, 63-82. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Dimitrakopoulos, Dionyssis G. 2001. “Learning and steering: changing implementation patterns and the Greek central government.” Journal of European Public Policy 8 (4):604-22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dimitrova, A. 2002. “Enlargement, Institution-Building and the EUs Administrative Capacity Requirement.” West European Politics 25 (4):171-190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dollar, David, and Jakob Svensson. 2001. “What Explains the Success or Failure of Structural Adjustment Programmes?” The Economic Journal 110 (466):894-917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dolowitz, David P., and David Marsh. 2000. “Learning from Abroad: The Role of Policy Transfer in Contemporary Policy Making.” Governance 13 (1):5-24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Drazen, Allan. 2002. Conditionality and Ownership in IMF Lending: A Political Economy Approach, IMF Staff Papers. Washington, D.C.: IMF.Google Scholar
  30. Easterly, William. 2005. “What did structural adjustment adjust? The association of policies and growth with repeated IMF and World Bank adjustment loans.” Journal of Development Economics 76 (1):1-22.Google Scholar
  31. Ennser-Jedenastik, Laurenz. 2014. “Credibility Versus Control: Agency Independence and Partisan Influence in the Regulatory State.” Comparative Political Studies 48 (7):823-853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ennser-Jedenastik, Laurenz. 2016. “The Politicization of Regulatory Agencies: Between Partisan Influence and Formal Independence.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 26 (3):507-518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. European Network on Debt and Development. 2006. World Bank and IMF conditionality: a development injustice. Brussels: EURODAD.Google Scholar
  34. European Parliament, and Council of the EU. 2011. Regulation (EU) No 1176/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 November 2011 on the prevention and correction of macroeconomic imbalances. Official Journal of the European Union, L306, 23 November.Google Scholar
  35. European Parliament, and Council of the EU. 2013a. Regulation (EU) No 472/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2013 on the strengthening of economic and budgetary surveillance of Member States in the euro area experiencing or threatened with serious difficulties with respect to their financial stability. Official Journal of the European Union L140, 27 May.Google Scholar
  36. European Parliament, and Council of the EU. 2013b. Regulation (EU) No 473/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2013 on common provisions for monitoring and assessing draft budgetary plans and ensuring the correction of excessive deficit of the Member States in the euro area. Official Journal of the European Union L140, 27 May.Google Scholar
  37. Everson, Michelle. 1995. “Independent agencies: Hierarchy beaters?” European Law Journal 1 (2):180-204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Falkner, Gerda. 2010. “Institutional Performance and Compliance with EU Law: Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia and Slovenia.” Journal of Public Policy 30 (1):101-116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Falkner, Gerda, Oliver Treib, Elisabeth Holzleithner with Emannuelle Causse, Petra Furthlehner, Marianne Schulze, and Clemens Wiedermann. 2008. Compliance in the Enlarged European Union: Living Rights or Dead Letters? Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  40. Featherstone, Kevin. 2015. “External conditionality and the debt crisis: the ‘Troika’ and public administration reform in Greece.” Journal of European Public Policy 22 (3):295-314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Flinders, Matthew, and Jim Buller. 2006. “Depoliticisation: Principles, Tactics and Tools.” British Politics 1 (3):293-318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Flinders, Matthew, and Matt Wood. 2014. “Depoliticisation, governance and the state.” Policy & Politics 42 (2):135-149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gatsios, Konstantine, and Paul Seabright. 1989. “Regulation in the European Community.” Oxford Review of Economic Policy 5 (2):37-60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gay, Oonagh. 1997. The Accountability Debate: Next Steps Agencies. London: House of Commons Library.Google Scholar
  45. Gilardi, Fabrizio. 2010. “Who Learns from What in Policy Diffusion Processes?” American Journal of Political Science 54 (3):650-666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Güven, Ali Burak. 2012. “The Feasibility of IFI-Led Institutional Reform: Four Turkish Experiments Compared.” Development Policy Review 30 (4):425-449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Haggard, Stepaen, and Stephen B. Webb. 1994. “Introduction.” In Voting for Reform: Democracy, Political Liberalization and Economic Adjustment, edited by Stephan Haggard and Stephen B. Webb, 1-36. Oxford: Oxford University Press for the World Bank.Google Scholar
  48. Hall, Peter A. 1989. “Conclusion: the politics of Keynesian ideas.” In The Political Power of Economic Ideas: Keynesianism across Nations, edited by Peter A. Hall, 361-92. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Haughton, Tim. 2007. “When does the EU make a difference? Conditionality and the accession process in Central and Eastern Europe.” Political Studies Review 5 (2):233–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hay, Colin. 2007. Why we hate politics. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  51. Hix, Simon, and Klaus H. Goetz. 2000. “Introduction: European integration and national political systems.” West European Politics 23 (4):1-26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hood, Christopher. 1991. “A public management for all seasons?” Public Administration 69 (1):3-19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Huber, John D. 2000. “Delegation to civil servants in parliamentary democracies.” European Journal of Political Research 37 (3):397-413.Google Scholar
  54. Hughes, James, Gwendolyn Sasse, and Claire Gordon. 2004. “Conditionality and Compliance in the EU’s Eastward Enlargement: Regional Policy and the Reform of Sub-national Government.” Journal of Common Market Studies 42 (3):523-551.Google Scholar
  55. Hughes, James, Gwendolyn Sasse, and Claire Gordon. 2005. Europeanization and Regionalization in the EU’s Enlargement to Central and Eastern Europe: The Myth of Conditionality, One Europe or Several? Basingstoke: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. IMF. 2001. Strengthening Country Ownership of Fund Supported Programs, Prepared by the Policy Development and Review Department. Washington, D.C.: IMF.Google Scholar
  57. IMF. 2012a. 2011 Review of Conditionality - Background Paper 1: Content and Application of Conditionality. Prepared by the Strategy, Policy and Review Department. Washington, D.C.: IMF.Google Scholar
  58. IMF. 2012b. 2011 Review of Conditionality: Overview Paper Prepared by the Strategy, Policy, and Review Department in consultation with other Departments. Washington, D.C.: IMF.Google Scholar
  59. Ivanova, Anna, Wolfgang Mayer, Alex Mourmouras, and George Anayiotos. 2001. What Determines the Success or Failure of Fund-Supported Programs? Washington, D.C.: IMF.Google Scholar
  60. Kahn-Nisser, Sara. 2013. “Conditionality, Communication and Compliance: The Effect of Monitoring on Collective Labour Rights in Candidate Countries.” Journal of Common Market Studies 51 (6):1040-1056.Google Scholar
  61. Killick, Tony. 1997. “Principals, agents and the failings of conditionality.” Journal of International Development 9 (4):483-495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Koeberle, Stefan, Harold Bedoya, Peter Silarsky, and Gero Verheyen, eds. 2005. Conditionality revisited: concepts, experiences, and lessons. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.Google Scholar
  63. Koeberle, Stefan G. 2003. “Should policy-based lending still involve conditionality?” World Bank Research Observer 18 (2):249-273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kydland, Finn E., and Edward C. Prescott. 1977. “Rules rather than discretion: the inconsistency of optimal plans.” Journal of Political Economy 85 (3):473-92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Maggetti, Martino. 2009. “The role of independent regulatory agencies in policy-making: a comparative analysis.” Journal of European Public Policy 16 (3):450-470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Maggetti, Martino. 2010. Legitimacy and Accountability of Independent Regulatory Agencies: A Critical Review. Living Reviews in Democracy 2. Accessed 12 February 2018.Google Scholar
  67. Maggetti, Martino, and Yannis Papadopoulos. 2018. “The Principal–Agent Framework and Independent Regulatory Agencies.” Political Studies Review 16 (3):172-183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Majone, Giandomenico. 1994. “The rise of the regulatory state in Europe.” West European Politics 17 (3):77-101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Majone, Giandomenico. 1996. Temporal consistency and policy credibility: Why democracies need non-majoritarian institutions. Florence: European University Institute.Google Scholar
  70. March, James G., and Johan P. Olsen. 1989. Rediscovering Institutions: The Organizational Basis of Politics. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  71. May, Peter J. 1992. “Policy Learning and Failure.” Journal of Public Policy 12 (4):331-54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Meyer-Sahling, Jan-Hinrik. 2004. “Civil service reform in post-communist Europe: the bumpy road to depoliticisation.” West European Politics 27 (1):71-103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Milanovic, Branko. 2003. “The Two Faces of Globalization: Against Globalization as We Know It.” World Development 31 (4):667-683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Moe, Terry M. 1987. “Interests, Institutions, and Positive Theory: The Politics of the NLRB.” Studies in American Political Development 2:236-299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Moe, Terry M. 1990. “Political Institutions: The Neglected Side of the Story.” Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization 6 (special issue: papers from the Organization of Political Institutions Conference):213-253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Montinola, Gabriella R. 2007. When Does Aid Conditionality Work? Davis, CA.Google Scholar
  77. Moravcsik, Andrew. 1998. The Choice for Europe: Social Purpose and State Power from Messina to Maastricht. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Morrissey, Oliver. 2004. “Conditionality and aid effectiveness re-evaluated.” World Economy 27 (2):153-171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Morrissey, Oliver. 2005. “Alternatives to conditionality in policy-based lending.” In Conditionality revisited: concepts, experiences, and lessons, edited by Stefan Koeberle, Harold Bedoya, Peter Silarsky and Gero Verheyen, 237-247. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.Google Scholar
  80. Nelson, Joan M. 1996. “Promoting policy reforms: The twilight of conditionality?” World Development 24 (9):1551-1559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Osborne, David, and Ted Gaebler. 1992. Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit is Transforming the Public Sector. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  82. Pagoulatos, George. 2012. “The political economy of forced reform and the 2010 Greek economic adjustment programme.” In From stagnation to forced adjustment: reforms in Greece 1974-2010, edited by Stathis Kalyvas, George Pagoulatos and Haridimos Tsoukas, 247-274. London: Hurst & Co.Google Scholar
  83. Panchamia, Nehal, and Peter Thomas. n.d. The Next Steps Initiative. London: Institute for Government.Google Scholar
  84. Paraskevopoulos, Christos J. 2001. Interpreting Convergence in the European Union: Patterns of Collective Action, Social Learning and Europeanization. Basingstoke: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Peters, B. Guy, and Jon Pierre, eds. 2004. Politicization of the Civil Service in Comparative Perspective. The Quest for Control. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  86. Pollack, Mark A. 2002. “Learning from the Americanists (again): theory and method in the study of delegation.” West European Politics 25 (1):200-19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rhodes, Rod A. W. 1996. The New European Agencies - Agencies in British Government: Revolution or Evolution? Florence: European University Institute.Google Scholar
  88. Rodrik, Dani. 1990. “How should structural adjustment programs be designed?” World Development 18 (7):933-947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rodrik, Dani. 2016. “The Elusive Promise of Structural Reform.” The Milken Institute Review, 2nd quarter.Google Scholar
  90. Rose, Richard. 1991. “What is Lesson-Drawing?” Journal of Public Policy 11 (1):3-30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sabatier, Paul A. 1987. “Knowledge, Policy-Oriented Learning, and Policy Change. An Advocacy Coalition Framework.” Knowledge 8 (4):649-92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Schadler, Susan. 2017. “Living with Rules: The IMF’s Exceptional Access Framework and the 2010 Stand-By Arrangement with Greece.” In Background Papers for the IMF and the Crises in Greece, Ireland, and Portugal, edited by Moisés J. Schwartz and Shinji Takagi, 35-61. Washington, D.C.: Independent Evaluation Office of the International Monetary Fund.Google Scholar
  93. Scharpf, Fritz W. 1999. Governing in Europe: Effective and Democratic? Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Schimmelfennig, Frank. 2003. The EU, NATO and the Integration of Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Schimmelfennig, Frank, Stefan Engert, and Heiko Knobel. 2003. “Costs, Commitment and Compliance: The Impact of EU Democratic Conditionality on Latvia, Slovakia and Turkey.” Journal of Common Market Studies 41 (3):495-518.Google Scholar
  96. Schimmelfennig, Frank, and Ulrich Sedelmeier, eds. 2005a. The Europeanization of Central and Eastern Europe. Cornell Studies in Political Economy Series. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  97. Schimmelfennig, Frank, and Ulrich Sedelmeier. 2005b. “Introduction: conceptualizing the Europeanization of Central and Eastern Europe.” In The Europeanization of Central and Eastern Europe, edited by Frank Schimmelfennig and Ulrich Sedelmeier, 1-28. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  98. Schmidt, Manfred G. 1996. “When parties matter: a review of the possibilities and limits of partisan influence on public policy.” European Journal of Political Research 30 (2):155-83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Simmons, Beth A., Dobbin, Frank and Garrett, Geoffrey. 2007. “The Global Diffusion of Public Policies: Social Construction, Coercion, Competition or Learning?” Annual Review of Sociology 33:449-472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sotiropoulos, Dimitris A. 2001. The Top Levels of the Clientelist State. Organization, Staffing and Politicization of the Higher Grades of the Central Administration in Greece. Athens: Potamos (in Greek).Google Scholar
  101. Spanou, Calliope. 1996. “Penelope’s Suitors: Administrative Modernisation and Party Competition in Greece.” West European Politics 19 (1):97-124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Spanou, Calliope. 2016. Policy conditionality, structural adjustment and the domestic policy system. Conceptual framework and research agenda. Badia Fiesolana: European University Institute/Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Spraos, John. 1986. IMF Conditionality: Ineffectual, inefficient, mistargeted, Essays in International Finance no. 166. Princeton, N.J.: Department of Economics, Princeton University.Google Scholar
  104. Stiles, Kendall W. 1990. “IMF conditionality: coercion or compromise?” World Development 18 (7):959-974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Strøm, Kaare. 2003. “Parliamentary Democracy and Delegation.” In Delegation and Accountability in Parliamentary Democracies, edited by Kaare Strøm, Wolfgang C. Müller and Torbjörn Bergman. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Swyngedouw, Erik. 2009. “The Antinomies of the Postpolitical City: In Search of a Democratic Politics of Environmental Production.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 33 (3):601-620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Thatcher, Mark. 2002. “Delegation to independent regulatory agencies: pressures, functions and contextual mediation.” West European Politics 25 (1):125-47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Thatcher, Mark, and Alec Stone Sweet. 2002. “Theory and practice of delegation to non-majoritarian institutions.” West European Politics 25 (1):1-22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Thomas, John W., and Merilee S. Grindle. 1990. “After the decision: Implementing policy reforms in developing countries.” World Development 18 (8):1163-1181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Tommasi, Mariano, and Andrés Velasco. 1995. Where Are We in the Political Economy of Reform? Los Angeles, CA: UCLA.Google Scholar
  111. Tsebelis, George. 1995. “Decision making in political systems: veto players in presidentialism, parliamentarism, multicameralism and multipartyism.” British Journal of Political Science 25 (3):289-325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Tsekos, Theodore N. 2013. “Structural, Functional, and Cultural Aspects of the Greek Public Administration and Their Effects on Public Employees’ Collective Action.” Comparative Labor Law & Policy Journal 34 (2):457-477.Google Scholar
  113. Vita, Viorica. 2017. “Revisiting the Dominant Discourse on Conditionality in the EU: The Case of EU Spending Conditionality.” Cambridge Yearbook of European Legal Studies 19 (116–143).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wood, Matt, and Matthew Flinders. 2014. “Rethinking depoliticisation: beyond the governmental.” Policy & Politics 42 (2):151-170.Google Scholar
  115. World Bank. 2005a. Review of World Bank conditionality. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.Google Scholar
  116. World Bank. 2005b. Review of World Bank conditionality - the theory and practice of conditionality: a literature review. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.Google Scholar
  117. Zahariadis, Nikolaos. 2014. “Powering over Puzzling? Downsizing the Public Sector during the Greek Sovereign Debt Crisis.” Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice:1-15. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1080/13876988.2013.861971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dionyssis Dimitrakopoulos
    • 1
  • Argyris Passas
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PoliticsBirkbeck, University of LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of International, European and Area StudiesPanteion University of Social and Political SciencesAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations