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Molecular Breeding Strategies for Genetic Improvement in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

  • Ritu Mahajan
  • Nisha Kapoor
Chapter

Abstract

The current progress in crop research has provided a useful benchmark to evaluate crop-breeding improvement using genomics and molecular breeding techniques. The generation of huge amounts of molecular-genetic data has provided several ways to utilize the available genetic resources and to find solutions to the demanding goals of plant breeding. Rice being a staple food is consumed as an essential part of the dietary requirement by most of the developing countries. With the increase in population growth, traditional breeding methods cannot find a viable solution for sustainable crop production and food security. Since genetics and breeding are closely associated, combining these two has resulted in remarkable progress in rice-breeding programs. The presence of genetic diversity within cultivated crops and their wild relatives provides a platform for gene discovery of the agronomical important traits yet to be sufficiently discovered and utilized. This progress of developing new rice varieties with specific agronomic characters was made by using marker-assisted selection that opened new avenues for basic plant research. Combining conventional methods with molecular genetics will help in understanding the inheritance pattern of targeted traits in plant breeding and thus will lead to crop improvement in the future. This in turn can open new ways of improving the efficiency of breeding programs. Next-generation sequencing is the largest advancement and a boon for gene identification and variations in the genome. Recent techniques like CRISPR/Cas9 system are creating a major revolution in genome editing by adding or removing the genetic material at particular locations in the genome. Hence, molecular techniques are influencing the breeding process from selection to introgression of known genes/traits and thus sustaining the world’s food productivity.

Keywords

CRISPR Crop improvement Introgression Microarrays QTLs 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The authors are thankful to the School of Biotechnology, University of Jammu, Jammu, India.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ritu Mahajan
    • 1
  • Nisha Kapoor
    • 1
  1. 1.School of BiotechnologyUniversity of JammuJammuIndia

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