Evaluation of Patients with Heart Valve Disease

  • Jose Zamorano
  • Ciro Santoro
  • Álvaro Marco del Castillo


The evaluation of patients with valvular heart disease is complex and requires an exemplary diagnostic effort. Even though there are several tools to reach a diagnosis, it is often severity that generates a lot of controversy. Echocardiography has always been the first approach; however, some valvular diseases have been traditionally difficult to assess using this modality alone. Also, some specific patients with poor acoustic windows represent a tremendous challenge. That is why other diagnostic techniques have experienced and are experiencing an amazing development, and has been the use of multimodal approaches that has increased the overall performance of valvular disease assessment.


Echocardiography Computed tomography Magnetic resonance Catheterization 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jose Zamorano
    • 1
  • Ciro Santoro
    • 1
  • Álvaro Marco del Castillo
    • 1
  1. 1.Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital Universitario Ramón y CajalMadridSpain

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