Presence Is the Key to Understanding Immersive Learning

  • Andreas DengelEmail author
  • Jutta Mägdefrau
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 1044)


Presence as the subjective feeling of ‘being there’ is one of the main psychological components in immersive virtual environments. Research shows that presence can have an effect on learning outcomes in educational virtual environments. As presence can be considered as an individual psychological variable, its crucial role in the process of immersive learning is influenced by numerous subjective and objective factors. On the basis of the Educational Framework for Immersive Learning (EFiL), we developed a research model including the factors presence, immersion, cognitive abilities, motivation, and emotion. The hypotheses of the research model have been examined in a study with 23 students testing three different immersive educational virtual environments for learning computer science. The results of 67 presence questionnaires could confirm the hypotheses of the research model deriving from the EFiL partly. The factors immersion, emotion, and cognitive abilities were predictors for presence. An assumed, predictive effect of intrinsic motivation towards learning computer science on presence could not be verified.


Immersive learning Presence Educational virtual environments Virtual reality Immersion 



The SKILL project is part of the “Qualitätsoffensive Lehrerbildung”, a joint initiative of the Federal Government and the Länder which aims to improve the quality of teacher training. The programme is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. The authors are responsible for the content of this publication.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Computer Science and MathematicsUniversity of PassauPassauGermany
  2. 2.Faculty of Arts and HumanitiesUniversity of PassauPassauGermany

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