Solving the Problem in Italy and Much of Western Europe

  • Edmund S. PhelpsEmail author
Conference paper


What are the deep, structural problems in Italy—the problems that preclude a “good economy”—even if everything else goes right? Much of the problems have to do with innovation, “indigenous” and “imported.” Innovation is generally necessary if people are to have gratifying working lives and rising living standards, though some kinds of innovation create a problem. How has Italy fared in this dimension?

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center on Capitalism and SocietyColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

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