Rheumatoid Arthritis

  • Saleha Riaz
  • Apostolos KontziasEmail author


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common autoimmune rheumatologic condition classically presenting as symmetric polyarthritis. Smoking and microbiome are implicated in its pathogenesis in the background of a genetically susceptible host. RA is a systemic disease beyond joint involvement with pulmonary, cardiac, vascular, cutaneous, hematologic, and ophthalmologic manifestations especially in patients who are seropositive. Early diagnosis and treatment targeting low disease activity has yielded improved outcomes. RA confers increased cardiovascular risk independent of traditional factors and requires multidisciplinary management. Biomarkers of response to allow for patient-tailored treatment are needed.


Rheumatoid arthritis Pathogenesis Microbiome Poor prognostic factors Differential Biologics 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumatology Allergy and ImmunologyStony Brook University HospitalStony BrookUSA

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