Crystal Arthritis

  • Anastasia Slobodnick
  • Michael Toprover
  • Michael H. PillingerEmail author


The formation or liberation of crystals, whether of an organic or inorganic composition, can activate the innate immune system to produce both acute and chronic inflammation. Thus, the inflammatory responses to all crystal diseases are similar, though they may vary in degree or kinetics. Crystal diseases differ more dramatically in their epidemiology, the metabolism, biology and chemistry of their crystal formations, their anatomic localizations, and their potentials for deposition and tissue disruption. Here, we review the two most common classes of crystal diseases—gout and crystals that are composed of calcium with various anions. Additionally, we briefly review several other crystals that may be encountered.


Gout CPPD Urate Basic calcium phosphate Inflammation Inflammasome 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anastasia Slobodnick
    • 1
    • 2
  • Michael Toprover
    • 1
    • 2
  • Michael H. Pillinger
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.The Crystal Diseases Study Group, Division of Rheumatology, Department of MedicineNew York University School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Rheumatology Section, Department of MedicineNew York Harbor Health Care System New York Campus, United States Department of Veterans AffairsNew YorkUSA

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