• Aaroop HaridasEmail author
  • Seth Mark Berney


Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease, and its clinical manifestations result from skeletal fractures. This disease poses a high risk of morbidity and mortality and represents a tremendous economic burden to society. The Dual Energy Absorptiometry Scan (DXA) is the gold standard for diagnosis, and the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) helps in deciding therapeutic interventions in those with osteopenia. The most important management strategy is fracture prevention and treating contributing factors. Both non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies, including patient and provider education, are effective in decreasing the morbidity and mortality of osteoporosis.


Osteoporosis Morbidity DEXA FRAX Bisphosphonates Fracture 


  1. 1.
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
  5. 5.
    Kostenuik PJ. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2005;5:618–25; Boyle WJ, et al. Nature. 2003;423:337–42; Kostenuik PJ, et al. Curr Pharm Des. 2001;7:613–35.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Feldkamp J, Becker A, Witte OW, Scharff D, Scherbaum WA. Long-term anticonvulsant therapy leads to low bone mineral density–evidence for direct drug effects of phenytoin and carbamazepine on human osteoblast-like cells. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2000;108(1):37–43. Scholar
  7. 7.
    Albertazzi P, Bottazzi M, Steel SA. Bone mineral density and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate. Contraception. 2006;73(6):577–83. Epub 2006 Apr 27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
  10. 10.
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Research.
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
  13. 13.
    Carmel AS, Shieh A, Bang H, Bockman RS. The 25(OH)D level needed to maintain a favorable bisphosphonate response is ≥33 ng/ml. Osteoporos Int. 2012;23(10):2479–87. Epub 2012 Jan 12.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Watts NB, Roux C, Modlin JF, Brown JP, Daniels A, Jackson S, Smith S, Zack DJ, Zhou L, Grauer A, Ferrari S. Infections in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated with denosumab or placebo: coincidence or causal association? Osteoporos Int. 2012;23(1):327–337. Epub 2011 Sep 3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Andrews EB, Gilsenan AW, Midkiff K, Sherrill B, Wu Y, Mann BH, Masica D. The US postmarketing surveillance study of adult osteosarcoma and teriparatide: study design and findings from the first 7 years. J Bone Miner Res. 2012;27(12):2429–37. Scholar
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
  18. 18.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Assistant Professor, Faculty Trainer in Musculoskeletal Ultrasound, Division of Rheumatology, University of Arkansas for Medical SciencesLittle RockUSA
  2. 2.The Eleanor A. Lipsmeyer Professor in Rheumatology, Professor of Medicine, Chief Division of Rheumatology, Director Rheumatology Fellowship ProgramUnversity of Arkansas for Medical SciencesLittle RockUSA

Personalised recommendations