Effectuation and Causation Approaches in Entrepreneurial Marketing: A Set-Theoretical Model

  • Pável Reyes-Mercado
  • Rajeev Verma


This chapter proposes a set-theoretical model to analyse the interplay between causation and effectuation in entrepreneurial marketing (EM). Existing literature offers approaches oriented to understand venture performance but they are exclusive. This chapter takes an inclusive perspective in which there may be an interplay of causation and effectuation across the critical stages of venture evolution: exploration of opportunities and exploitation of opportunities. The proposed model involves analysing the differences between previous approaches but also considers their intersection. In this way, we contribute by considering that the interplay causation-effectuation as a hybrid path to venture performance. Prospects for testing as well as implications for theory and practice are discussed.


Effectuation Causation Entrepreneurial marketing New ventures Set-theoretical models Qualitative comparative analysis QCA 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pável Reyes-Mercado
    • 1
  • Rajeev Verma
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Business and EconomicsAnahuac UniversityMexico CityMexico
  2. 2.Department of MarketingChandragupt Institute of Management PatnaPatnaIndia

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