Advertisement

Work Organization Influences and Strategies

  • Sharlene G. BuszkaEmail author
  • Timothy Ewest
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Workplace Spirituality and Fulfillment book series (PSTWSP)

Abstract

The third sphere in our Faith and Work Integration Spheres of Influence model (FWSI) is that of the work organization. This is the arena in which the individual Christian worker applies their personal faith (Chap.  9) within a given occupational role (Chap.  10), using guidance they may or may not have received from outside faith organizations (to be discussed in Chap.  12). It has been recognized that organizational-level factors such mission, culture, and policies can have significant impact on employee behavior, including the likelihood of employees integrating faith in the workplace (Weaver & Stansbury, 2014). Likewise, in addition to person-job fit, there has been growing emphasis on how the person–organization fit (Memon, Salleh, & Baharom, 2014; Sekiguchi, 2004) impacts the employment relationship. It has also been acknowledged that when individuals choose to become parts of an organization, there will be an interaction between their spiritual being and the nature of the organization (Pawar, 2017).

References

  1. 2014 Employee Benefits an Overview of Employee Benefits Offerings in the U.S. [PDF]. (2014). Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM).Google Scholar
  2. About. (n.d.). Retrieved May 12, 2019, from https://agapewebsite.org/about/#mission
  3. Accommodating Religion, Belief and Spirituality in the Workplace Toolkit. (2015, September 10). Retrieved from https://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/tools-and-samples/toolkits/pages/accommodating-religion,-belief-and-spirituality-in-the-workplace.aspx
  4. Ali, I., Rehman, K. U., Ali, S. I., Yousaf, J., & Zia, M. (2010). Corporate social responsibility influences, employee commitment and organizational performance. African Journal of Business Management, 4(13), 2796–2801.Google Scholar
  5. Amos, E. A., & Weathington, B. L. (2008). An analysis of the relation between employee—Organization value congruence and employee attitudes. The Journal of Psychology, 142(6), 615–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arnaud, A., & Schminke, M. (2012). The ethical climate and context of organizations: A comprehensive model. Organization Science, 23(6), 1767–1780.  https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.1110.0698 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ashforth, B. E., & Pratt, M. G. (2010). Institutional spirituality: An oxymoron? In R. A. Giacalone & C. L. Jurkiewicz (Eds.), Handbook of workplace spirituality and organizational performance (pp. 93–107). New York, NY: ME Sharper.Google Scholar
  8. Ashmos, D. P., & Duchon, D. (2000). Spirituality at work: A conceptualization and measure. Journal of Management Inquiry, 9(2), 134–145.  https://doi.org/10.1177/105649260092008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ban, C., Drahnak-Faller, A., & Towers, M. (2003). Human resource challenges in human service and community development organizations. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 23(2), 133–153.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0734371x03023002004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bart, C. K., Bontis, N., & Taggar, S. (2001). A model of the impact of mission statements on firm performance. Management Decision, 39(1), 19–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Battilana, J., & Dorado, S. (2010). Building sustainable hybrid organizations: The case of commercial microfinance organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 53(6), 1419–1440.  https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2010.57318391 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bell-Ellis, R., Jones, L. C., Longstreth, M., & Neal, J. (2013). Faith related determinants of organizational commitment. In J. Neal (Ed.), Handbook of faith and spirituality in the workplace: Emerging research and practice. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  13. Benefiel, M. (2008). The soul of a leader: Finding your path to fulfillment and success. New York, NY: Crossroad Pub.Google Scholar
  14. Biberman, J. (2009). What makes an organization spiritual: Applied spirituality in organizational structure, design, processes and practices. In J. Marques, S. Dhiman, & R. King (Eds.), The workplace and spirituality: New perspectives on research and practice (pp. 111–118). Woodstock, VT: Skylights Path Publishing.Google Scholar
  15. Bielefeld, W., & Cleveland, W. (2013). Defining faith-based organizations and understanding them through research. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 42(3), 442–467.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764013484090 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bradley, J., & Kauanui, S. K. (2003). Comparing spirituality on three southern California college campuses. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 16(4), 448–462.  https://doi.org/10.1108/09534810310484181 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brammer, S., Millington, A., & Rayton, B. (2007). The contribution of corporate social responsibility to organizational commitment. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(10), 1701–1719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Buszka, S. G. (2015). Factors affecting the integration of faith and spirituality in the college workplace (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Oxford Graduate School, Dayton TN.Google Scholar
  19. Buszka, S. G., & Ewest, T. G. (2018). The impact of college type and occupational category on faith integration in the college workplace. In T. G. Ewest (Ed.), Faith and work: Christian perspectives, research, and insights into the movement (pp. 33–55). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  20. Careers. (n.d.). Retrieved May 12, 2019, from www.tenthousandvillages.com/careers/
  21. Carland, J. W., Hoy, F., Boulton, W. R., & Carland, J. A. C. (1984). Differentiating entrepreneurs from small business owners: A conceptualization. Academy of Management Review, 9(2), 354–359. https://doi-org.ezproxy.daemen.edu/10.5465/AMR.1984.4277721 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chan-Serafin, S., Brief, A. P., & George, J. M. (2013). PERSPECTIVE—How does religion matter and why? Religion and the organizational sciences. Organization Science, 24(5), 1585–1600.  https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.1120.0797 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chaves, M. (2010). SSSR presidential address rain dances in the dry season: Overcoming the religious congruence fallacy. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 49(1), 1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5906.2009.01489.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Christensen, T., Lægreid, P., Roness, P., & Røvik, K. A. (2011). Organization theory and the public sector: Instrument, culture and myth. London, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Cummings, K. (2007, December). Title VII religious organization exemption. EEOC. Retrieved from https://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/foia/letters/2007/religious_organization_exception_dec_28_2007.html
  26. Davidson, J. C., & Caddell, D. P. (1994). Religion and the meaning of work. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 33, 135–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dougherty, K. D., Griebel, J., Neubert, M. J., & Park, J. Z. (2013). A religious profile of American entrepreneurs. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 52(2), 401–409.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jssr.12026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Encarnacion, O. (2017). Lawful religious discrimination? The ministerial exception’s almighty spillage over the grayer non-ministerial areas. Law School Student Scholarship. Retrieved from https://scholarship.shu.edu/student_scholarship/871
  29. Facts & Data on Small Business and Entrepreneurship. (n.d.). Retrieved August 15, 2019, from http://sbecouncil.org/about-us/facts-and-data/
  30. Facts About Religious Discrimination. (n.d.). Retrieved February 25, 2015, from http://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/publications/fs-religion.cfm
  31. Filistrucchi, L., & Prufer, J. (2013). Faithful strategies: How religion shapes nonprofit management. SSRN Electronic Journal.  https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2327087
  32. Fisher, L. (2003, November 30). The paradox of Charles Handy. Retrieved May 12, 2019, from https://www.strategy-business.com/article/03309?gko=4d780%2C
  33. Fleming, A. J. (2016). Dissecting Hobby Lobby’s corporate person. Brooklyn Law Review, 81(4), 1749–1775. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.ezproxy.daemen.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,uid&db=a9h&AN=117659559&site=ehost-live&scope=site Google Scholar
  34. Friedman, M. (2007). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. In W. C. Zimmerli, M. Holzinger, & K. Richter (Eds.), Corporate ethics and corporate governance (pp. 173–179). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fry, L. J. (2003). Toward a theory of spiritual leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 14(6), 693–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gamble, E. N., & Beer, H. A. (2015). Spiritually informed not-for-profit performance measurement. Journal of Business Ethics, 141(3), 451–468.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-015-2682-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Glavas, A., & Kelley, K. (2014, April). The effects of perceived corporate social responsibility on employee attitudes. Business Ethics Quarterly, 24(2), 165–202.  https://doi.org/10.5840/beq20143206 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Grant, D., O’neil, K., & Stephens, L. (2004). Spirituality in the workplace: New empirical directions in the study of the sacred. Sociology of Religion, 65(3), 265.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3712252 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Guerci, M., Radaelli, G., Siletti, E., Cirella, S., & Shani, A. B. (2013). The impact of human resource management practices and corporate sustainability on organizational ethical climates: An employee perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 126(2), 325–342.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-013-1946-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Guide for Small Businesses with Federal Contracts. (n.d.). Retrieved May 13, 2019, from https://www.dol.gov/ofccp/TAguides/sbguide.htm#Q2
  41. Guidelines on Religious Expression in the Federal Workplace. (n.d.). Retrieved March 7, 2015, from http://clinton2.nara.gov/WH/New/html/19970819-3275.html
  42. Handy, C. (1996). Gods of management: The changing work of organizations. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Harding, R. (2004). Social enterprise: The new economic engine? Business Strategy Review, 15(4), 39–43.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0955-6419.2004.00338.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hicks, D. A. (2003). Religion and the workplace: Pluralism, spirituality, leadership. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hodge, D. R., & Derezotes, D. S. (2008). Postmodernism and spirituality: Some pedagogical implications for teaching content on spirituality. Journal of Social Work Education, 44(1), 103–124.  https://doi.org/10.5175/jswe.2008.200500598 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Horwitz, J. R. (2005). Making profits and providing care: Comparing nonprofit, for-profit, and government hospitals. Health Affairs, 24(3), 790–801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hull, C., & Lio, B. (2006). Innovation in non-profit and for-profit organizations: Visionary, strategic, and financial considerations. Journal of Change Management, 6(1), 53–65. https://doi-org.ezproxy.daemen.edu/10.1080/14697010500523418 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ibrahim, N., Rue, L., McDougall, P., & Greene, G. (1991). Characteristics and practices of “Christian-based” companies. Journal of Business Ethics, 10(2), 123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Investor Relations. (n.d.). Retrieved May 12, 2019, from http://investors.fedex.com/company-overview/mission-and-goals/default.aspx
  50. Islam, G., & Zyphur, M. J. (2009). Rituals in Organizations. Group & Organization Management, 34(1), 114–139.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601108329717 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jones, A., & Crandall, R. (1986). Validation of a short index of self-actualization. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 12(1), 63–73.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167286121007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kinjerski, V., & Skrypnek, B. J. (2006). Measuring the intangible: Development of the spirit at work scale. Proceedings of Academy of Management, 2006(1), A–A6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kondra, A. Z., & Hurst, D. C. (2009). Institutional processes of organizational culture. Culture and Organization, 15(1), 39–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lambert III, L. (2009). Spirituality, Inc: Religion in the American workplace. New York: New York University Press. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/daemen/detail.action?docID=865777
  55. Lebaron, G. (2008). Captive labour and the free market: Prisoners and production in the USA. Capital & Class, 32(2), 59–81.  https://doi.org/10.1177/030981680809500103 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lynn, M. L., Naughton, M. J., & Vanderveen, S. (2010). Connecting religion and work: Patterns and influences of work-faith integration. Human Relations, 64(5), 675–701.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726710386396 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Madison, K., Holt, D. T., Kellermanns, F. W., & Ranft, A. L. (2016). Viewing family firm behavior and governance through the lens of agency and stewardship theories. Family Business Review, 29(1), 65–93.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0894486515594292 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Marshall, J. (2016). Burwell v. Hobby Lobby: Protecting religious freedom in a diverse society. New York University Journal of Law and Liberty, 10(1), 327–345.Google Scholar
  59. Martorana, M. E. (2016). Closely held corporations are persons: The Supreme Court’s correct and intuitive holding in Burwell V. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc. Faulkner Law Review, 7(2), 319–342. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.ezproxy.daemen.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,uid&db=a9h&AN=119503061&site=ehost-live&scope=site Google Scholar
  60. McIntyre, G. (2018, June 20). What is the SBA’s definition of small business (and why)? Retrieved April 12, 2019, from https://www.fundera.com/blog/sba-definition-of-small-business
  61. Meinert, D. (2014, April 1). Creating an ethical work: Business decisions aren’t always black and white. How can you trust that your workers will do the right thing? HR Magazine, 59(4). Retrieved from http://www.shrm.org/publications/hrmagazine/editorialcontent/2014/0414/pages/0414-ethical-workplace-culture.aspx
  62. Memon, M. A., Salleh, R., & Baharom, M. N. (2014). Linking person-job fit, person-organization fit, employee engagement and turnover intention: A three-step conceptual model. Asian Social Science, 11(2).  https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v11n2p313
  63. Miller, D. (2005). Integrating faith and work: Companies that develop “faith friendly” cultures to allow employees to put their souls as well as their hearts and minds into their work will ultimately be rewarded with better performance and productivity. The Journal of Employee Assistance, 13.Google Scholar
  64. Miller, D., Breton-Miller, I. L., & Scholnick, B. (2007). Stewardship vs. Stagnation: An empirical comparison of small family and non-family businesses. Journal of Management Studies, 45(1).  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2007.00718.x
  65. Miller, D., & Ewest, T. (2011). Rethinking the impact of religion on business values: Understanding its reemergence and measuring its manifestations. Princeton University Faith & Work Initiative. Retrieved from https://faithandwork.princeton.edu/research/integration-profile/tip-publications-and-conference-papers
  66. Miller, D. W. (2007). God at work the history and promise of the faith at work movement. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Miller, D. W., & Ewest, T. (2015). A new framework for analyzing organizational workplace religion and spirituality. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 12(4), 305–328.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14766086.2015.1054864 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mitchell, C. (2006, November 28). Faith at work: What does it mean to be a ‘faith-friendly’ company? The Conference Board of Canada. Retrieved from https://www.conferenceboard.ca/e-Library/abstract.aspx?did=1840&AspxAutoDetectCookieSupport=1
  69. New York State Police. (n.d.). Retrieved May 12, 2019, from https://www.troopers.ny.gov/Introduction/
  70. Pache, A., & Santos, F. (2013). Inside the hybrid organization: Selective coupling as a response to competing institutional logics. Academy of Management Journal, 56(4), 972–1001.  https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2011.0405 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pawar, B. S. (2017). The relationship of individual spirituality and organizational spirituality with meaning and community at work. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 38(7), 986–1003.  https://doi.org/10.1108/lodj-01-2016-0014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pedersen, J. S., & Dobbin, F. (2006). In search of identity and legitimation: Bridging organizational culture and neoinstitutionalism. American Behavioral Scientist, 49(7), 897–907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Petersen, M. J. (2010, November). International religious NGOs at the United Nations: A study of a group of religious organizations. Retrieved from https://sites.tufts.edu/jha/archives/847
  74. Pratt, M. G., & Rafaeli, A. (2006). Artifacts and organizations: Understanding our objective reality. In A. Rafaeli & M. G. Pratt (Eds.), Artifacts and organizations: Beyond mere symbolism (pp. 279–288). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  75. Reinhardt, U. (2000, November/December). The economics of for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals. Health Affairs. Retrieved from https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/abs/10.1377/hlthaff.19.6.178
  76. Rindova, V., Barry, D., & Ketchen, D. J. (2009). Entrepreneurship as emancipation. Academy of Management Review, 34(3), 477–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Roberts, G. (2015). Christian scripture and human resource management: Building a path to servant leadership through faith. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.  https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137440679 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Roundy, P., Taylor, V., & Evans, W. R. (2017). Founded by faith: Social entrepreneurship as a bridge between religion and work. Journal of Ethics and Entrepreneurship, Forthcoming.  https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/qfsb3
  79. Ruan, N. (2008). Accommodating respectful religious expression in the workplace. Marquette Law Review, 92(1), 2–28.Google Scholar
  80. Rudin, J. P., & Harshman, E. (2004). Keeping the faith but losing in court: Legal implications of proselytizing in the workplace. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 16(2), 105–112.  https://doi.org/10.1023/B:ERRJ.0000023181.62308.14 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Scheitle, C. P. (2009). Identity and government funding in Christian nonprofits. Social Science Quarterly, 90(4), 816–833.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6237.2009.00664.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Scheitle, C. P. (2010). Beyond the congregation: The world of Christian nonprofits. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Schneider, B., Barbera, K. M., & Keyton, J. (2014). Communication, organizational culture, and organizational climate. The Oxford Handbook of Organizational Climate and Culture.  https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199860715.013.0007
  84. Schwartz, M. S. (2006). God as a managerial stakeholder? Journal of Business Ethics, 66(2–3), 291–306.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-005-5599-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Seales, C. E. (2012). Corporate chaplaincy and the American workplace. Religion Compass, 6(3), 195–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sekiguchi, T. (2004). Person-organization fit and person-job fit in employee selection: A review of the literature. Osaka Keidai Ronshu, 54(6), 179–196.Google Scholar
  87. Sekiguchi, T. (2007). A contingency perspective of the importance of PJ fit and PO fit in employee selection. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22(2), 118–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Short, J. C., Moss, T. W., & Lumpkin, G. T. (2009). Research in social entrepreneurship: Past contributions and future opportunities. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 3(2), 161–194.  https://doi.org/10.1002/sej.69 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sider, R. J., & Unruh, H. R. (2004). Typology of religious characteristics of social service and educational organizations and programs. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 33(1), 109–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sirota, D., Mischkind, L. A., & Meltzer, M. I. (2005). The enthusiastic employee: How companies profit by giving workers what they want. Indianapolis, IN: Wharton School Pub.Google Scholar
  91. Sisk, A., & Shoenberger, E. (2018, November 08). What is the difference between non-profit & not for profit? Bizfluent. Retrieved from https://bizfluent.com/info-7991949-difference-between-nonprofit-not-profit.html
  92. Smith, E., & Hattery, A. (2006). The prison industrial complex. Sociation Today, 4(2), 1–28.Google Scholar
  93. Smith, J. M., Arendt, C., Lahman, J. B., Settle, G. N., & Duff, A. (2006). Framing the work of art: Spirituality and career discourse in the nonprofit arts sector. Communication Studies, 57(1), 25–46.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10510970500481672 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Stoner, J. (2013). Creating a spiritually friendly company. In J. Neal (Author), Handbook of faith and spirituality in the workplace: Emerging research and practice (pp. 491–517). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  95. Strang, K. D. (2017). Integrating theory and practice to identify contemporary best practice factors in USA not-for-profits. In L. L. West & A. C. Worthington (Eds.), Handbook of research on emerging business models and managerial strategies in the nonprofit sector (pp. 31–55). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sullivan, P. M. (2013). EEOC best practices support best practices for spirit and religion at work. In J. Neal (Ed.), Handbook of faith and spirituality in the workplace: Emerging research and practice (pp. 19–31). New York, NY: Springer Science & Business Media.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Thompson, D., & Miller-Perrin, C. (2003). Understanding vocation: Discerning and responding to God’s call, 11(1). Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.pepperdine.edu/leaven/vol11/iss1/11
  98. Tracey, P., Phillips, N., & Lounsbury, M. (2014). Taking religion seriously in the study of organizations. In Religion and organization theory (pp. 3–21). Bingley, UK: Emerald.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Turi, D. M. (2012). The relationship between student engagement and the development of character in mission driven faith-based colleges and universities as measured by the national survey of student engagement (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Thesis (Ph. D.). Seton Hall University, South Orange, NJ.Google Scholar
  100. Unruh, H. R., & Sider, R. J. (2005). A typology of faith-based organizations and programs. In Saving souls, serving society: Understanding the faith factor in church-based social ministry (pp. 103–126). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Weaver, G. R., & Agle, B. R. (2002). Religiosity and ethical behavior in organizations: A symbolic interactionist perspective. Academy of Management Review, 27(1), 77–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Weaver, G. R., & Stansbury, J. M. (2014). Religion in organizations: Cognition and behavior. Religion and Organization Theory Research in the Sociology of Organizations, 65–110.  https://doi.org/10.1108/s0733-558x20140000041011
  103. Weiss, J. A., & Piderit, S. K. (1999). The value of mission statements in public agencies. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 9(2), 193–224.  https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.jpart.a024408 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Weitz, E., Vardi, Y., & Setter, O. (2012). Spirituality and organizational behavior. Journal of Management, Spirituality and Religion, 9(3), 255–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. White Jr, R. D. (2003). Religion and spirituality in the workplace. Handbook of workplace spirituality and organizational performance (2nd ed., p. 274). Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  106. Wilkie, D. (2014, April 10). Of Hijabs, short skirts and Rastafarian locks. Retrieved May 13, 2019, from https://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/hr-topics/behavioral-competencies/global-and-cultural-effectiveness/pages/religion-workplace-accommodations.aspx
  107. Wilkinson, J. (2014, June 14). Non-profit vs not-for-profit similarities & differences. The Strategic CFO. Retrieved from https://strategiccfo.com/non-profit-vs-profit/
  108. Wright, B., Moynihan, D., & Pandey, S. (2012). Pulling the levers: Transformational leadership, public service motivation, and mission valence. Public Administration Review, 72(2), 206–215.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2011.02496.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Zinnbauer, B. J., Pargament, K. I., & Scott, A. B. (1999). The emerging meanings of religiousness and spirituality: Problems and prospects. Journal of Personality, 67(6), 889–919.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-649 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Daemen CollegeAmherstUSA
  2. 2.Houston Baptist UniversityHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations