Embryogenesis and Cellular Differentiation

  • Carsten Carlberg
  • Ferdinand Molnár


Early embryonic development is very vulnerable to environmental influences. Therefore, from all phases of our life, embryogenesis is the period, where epigenetics has the largest impact. Epigenetics directs the programing of PGCs, induced pluripotency as well as the function of adult stem cells in tissue homeostasis. These master examples demonstrate the impact of epigenetics on the organization of our body in health and disease.


Embryogenesis ES cells Cell lineage commitment PGCs Cellular reprograming Induced pluripotency Master transcription factors Gene regulatory networks Adult stem cells Tumorigenesis 

Further Reading

  1. Avgustinova A, Benitah SA (2016) Epigenetic control of adult stem cell function. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 17:643–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Li M, Belmonte JC (2017) Ground rules of the pluripotency gene regulatory network. Nat Rev Genet 18:180–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Perino M, Veenstra GJ (2016) Chromatin control of developmental dynamics and plasticity. Dev Cell 38:610–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Smith ZD, Sindhu C, Meissner A (2016) Molecular features of cellular reprograming and development. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 17:139–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Tang WW, Kobayashi T, Irie N, Dietmann S, Surani MA (2016) Specification and epigenetic programing of the human germ line. Nat Rev Genet 17:585–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Yadav T, Quivy JP, Almouzni G (2018) Chromatin plasticity: a versatile landscape that underlies cell fate and identity. Science 361:1332–1336CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carsten Carlberg
    • 1
  • Ferdinand Molnár
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of BiomedicineUniversity of Eastern FinlandKuopioFinland
  2. 2.Department of BiologyNazarbayev UniversityNur-SultanKazakhstan

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