Chromatin Modifying Proteins and RNAs

  • Carsten Carlberg
  • Ferdinand Molnár


Chromatin modifying enzymes either add or remove post-translational modifications to histone proteins and in this way change the functional profile of the epigenome. Antagonizing enzymes, such as HATs and HDACs, often co-localize at chromatin regions and fine-tune gene expression. Chromatin modeling complexes change the structure of chromatin by shifting, evicting or replacing nucleosomes. Finally, also long ncRNAs, such as Xist, can affect chromatin structure and function.


Chromatin modifiers Bromodomain Chromodomain PHD finger HATs HDACs KMTs HDMs Writers Erasers Readers ATP-dependent remodeling complex Nucleosome dynamics Long ncRNAs Xist 

Further Reading

  1. Atlasi Y, Stunnenberg HG (2017) The interplay of epigenetic marks during stem cell differentiation and development. Nat Rev Genet 18:643–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Carlberg C, Molnár F (2016) Mechanisms of Gene Regulation. Springer Textbook ISBN: 978-94-007-7904-4Google Scholar
  3. Clapier CR, Iwasa J, Cairns BR, Peterson CL (2017) Mechanisms of action and regulation of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodelling complexes. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 18:407–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Engreitz JM, Ollikainen N, Guttman M (2016) Long non-coding RNAs: spatial amplifiers that control nuclear structure and gene expression. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 17:756–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Marazzi I, Greenbaum BD, Low DHP, Guccione E (2018) Chromatin dependencies in cancer and inflammation. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 19:245–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Mozzetta C, Boyarchuk E, Pontis J, Ait-Si-Ali S (2015) Sound of silence: the properties and functions of repressive Lys methyltransferases. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 16:499–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Rowley MJ, Corces VG (2018) Organizational principles of 3D genome architecture. Nat Rev Genet 19:789–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Sheikh BN, Akhtar A (2019) The many lives of KATs – detectors, integrators and modulators of the cellular environment. Nat Rev Genet 20:7–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carsten Carlberg
    • 1
  • Ferdinand Molnár
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of BiomedicineUniversity of Eastern FinlandKuopioFinland
  2. 2.Department of BiologyNazarbayev UniversityNur-SultanKazakhstan

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