Histone Modifications

  • Carsten Carlberg
  • Ferdinand Molnár


Post-translational modifications are a general mechanism for instructing proteins about their function. Moreover, they allow proteins to “memorize” their encounters, such as contacts with other proteins. Histone proteins are the key examples of this protein communication system. In particular, lysine acetylations and methylations of histone tails have a large functional impact. Genome-wide profiling of the large set of post-transcriptional histone modifications provides the basis of the histone code. This code leads to the understanding, how the epigenome directs transcriptional regulation and stores information.


Post-translational histone modification Histone methylation Histone acetylation Genome-wide profiling Histone code Epigenetic memory 

Further Reading

  1. Biggar KK, Li SS (2015) Non-histone protein methylation as a regulator of cellular signalling and function. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 16:5–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Carlberg C, Molnár F (2016) Mechanisms of Gene Regulation. Springer Textbook ISBN: 978-94-007-7904-4Google Scholar
  3. Choudhary C, Weinert BT, Nishida Y, Verdin E, Mann M (2014) The growing landscape of lysine acetylation links metabolism and cell signalling. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 15:536–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Sabari BR, Zhang D, Allis CD, Zhao Y (2017) Metabolic regulation of gene expression through histone acylations. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 18:90–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Shlyueva D, Stampfel G, Stark A (2014) Transcriptional enhancers: from properties to genome-wide predictions. Nat Rev Genet 15:272–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Tessarz P, Kouzarides T (2014) Histone core modifications regulating nucleosome structure and dynamics. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 15:703–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carsten Carlberg
    • 1
  • Ferdinand Molnár
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of BiomedicineUniversity of Eastern FinlandKuopioFinland
  2. 2.Department of BiologyNazarbayev UniversityNur-SultanKazakhstan

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