Cytosine methylation of genomic DNA is the best-understood epigenetic mark. In most cases, DNA methylation leads to the formation of heterochromatin and subsequent gene silencing. Coordinated DNA methylation and its recognition via methylation-sensitive DNA-binding proteins have a large impact on health, such as genetic imprinting, i.e., the expression of a gene in a parent-of-origin-specific manner. In contrast, a disorganized DNA methylome contributes to tumorigenesis and thus to cancer.
DNA methylation CpG islands DNA methyltransferase TET proteins 5mC modifications Gene silencing Insulator CTCF Genetic imprinting X chromosome inactivation XistImprinting disorders Hyper-methylation
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