• Carsten Carlberg
  • Ferdinand Molnár


Chromatin is the physical representation of epigenetics. The degree of chromatin compaction is inversely correlated with gene expression. The epigenome responds to intra- and extra-cellular signals via changes in DNA methylation and histone modifications. Accordingly, the epigenetic landscape visualizes epigenomic changes during cellular differentiation, tumorigenesis and other cellular perturbations. Thus, the proper action of the epigenome has a major impact on our health and disease.


Epigenetics Chromatin Euchromatin Heterochromatin Human genome Gene Central dogma of molecular biology Epigenome Epigenetic landscape Big Biology projects 

Further Reading

  1. Allis CD, Jenuwein T (2016) The molecular hallmarks of epigenetic control. Nat Rev Genet 17:487–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersson R, Gebhard C, Miguel-Escalada I, Hoof I, Bornholdt J, Boyd M, Chen Y, Zhao X, Schmidl C, Suzuki T et al (2014) An atlas of active enhancers across human cell types and tissues. Nature 507:455–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carlberg C, Molnár F (2018) Human Epigenomics. Springer Textbook ISBN, pp 978–981-10-7614-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Deans C, Maggert KA (2015) What do you mean, “epigenetic”? Genetics 199:887–896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Encode-Project-Consortium (2012) An integrated encyclopedia of DNA elements in the human genome. Nature 489:57–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fantom-Consortium, Hoen PA, Forrest AR, Kawaji H, Rehli M, Baillie JK, de Hoon MJ, Haberle V, Lassmann T, Kulakovskiy IV et al (2014) A promoter-level mammalian expression atlas. Nature 507:462–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hasin Y, Seldin M, Lusis A (2017) Multi-omics approaches to disease. Genome Biol 18:83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lappalainen T, Greally JM (2017) Associating cellular epigenetic models with human phenotypes. Nat Rev Genet 18:441–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Roadmap Epigenomics Consortium, Kundaje A, Meuleman W, Ernst J, Bilenky M, Yen A, Heravi-Moussavi A, Kheradpour P, Zhang Z, Wang J et al (2015) Integrative analysis of 111 reference human epigenomes. Nature 518:317–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Stricker SH, Koferle A, Beck S (2017) From profiles to function in epigenomics. Nat Rev Genet 18:51–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carsten Carlberg
    • 1
  • Ferdinand Molnár
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of BiomedicineUniversity of Eastern FinlandKuopioFinland
  2. 2.Department of BiologyNazarbayev UniversityNur-SultanKazakhstan

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