How Do You Build a Group Program Based on the Principles of Intrinsic Motivation? Developing an After-School Program to Meet the Needs of all Students: Eight Years of Development

  • Elaine Clanton Harpine


Many communities lack adequate after-school programs, especially after-school programs that help children improve academically. To answer this need, our university research team collaborated with two community sponsors to develop an effective after-school program for students who were failing in reading. Some of the children had failed for multiple years. The goal was to bring children up to their appropriate age level in reading and to develop something that could be an ongoing, long-term self-sustaining program for the community. Across eight years, we developed, implemented, and tested an after-school group-centered prevention model, using a program packet to facilitate training with a community volunteer staff. The first-person accounts included in this article describe the development of the program and the development of the volunteer staff needed to continue the program. We present a model that can be used by any community to develop a similar program. The success of our model focused on using a group-centered prevention format, stressing intrinsic motivation, and teaching vowel clustering.


After-school programs Reading failure At-risk students Group-centered prevention Phonemic awareness Prevention groups Vowel clustering Phonics Systematic phonics Whole language Dyslexia Phonological decoding Teaching vowel sounds Service learning 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elaine Clanton Harpine
    • 1
  1. 1.University of South Carolina AikenAikenUSA

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