Why Is an After-School Group-Centered Reading Program One of the Best Ways to Stop Reading Failure? Does Intrinsic Motivation Contribute to Mental Wellness in the Classroom?

  • Elaine Clanton Harpine


Reading failure is a major problem in the United States. Neuroimaging research establishes that teaching methods can help determine whether a student learns to read or not. Unfortunately, schools are not making the necessary changes to help students learn to read. Community-based after-school programs can be one solution for reducing reading failure, improving academic achievement, and enhancing student mental health. A group-centered after-school program that combines learning and counseling can reduce reading failure and help students learn to read. A group-centered format’s purpose is to bring about therapeutic change. The educational component is to teach students how to read. The counseling component is to strengthen the students’ overall mental well-being and functioning. This chapter, which describes the theory behind group-centered prevention techniques, shows how learning and counseling can combine to meet the needs of at-risk students and outlines group-centered prevention’s central feature—intrinsic motivation. Research shows that group-centered interventions help struggling readers better than one-on-one tutoring.


Group-centered prevention Reading failure At-risk students Intrinsic motivation Efficacy retraining Self-efficacy School-based mental health Phonemic awareness Phonics Vowel clustering Academic failure Violence prevention Anger management 


  1. Adelman, H. S., & Taylor, L. (2006). Mental health in schools and public health. Public Health Report, 121, 294–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Afterschool Alliance. (2014). America after 3PM: Afterschool programs in demand. Washington, DC: Afterschool Alliance.Google Scholar
  3. Anda, R. F., Brown, D. W., Felitti, V. J., Bremner, J. D., Dube, S. R., & Giles, W. H. (2007). Adverse childhood experiences and prescribed psychotropic medications in adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 32, 389–394. Scholar
  4. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  6. Baskin, T. W., Slaten, C. D., Sorenson, C., Gover-Russell, J., & Merson, D. N. (2010). Does youth psychotherapy improve academically related outcomes? A meta-analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57, 290–296. Scholar
  7. Baumeister, R. F., Campbell, J. D., Krueger, J. I., & Vohs, K. D. (2003). Does high self-esteem cause better performance, interpersonal success, happiness, or healthier lifestyles? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4, 1–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berking, M., Orth, U., Wupperman, P., Meier, L. L., & Caspar, F. (2008). Prospective effects of emotion-regulation skills on emotional adjustment. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 55, 485–494. Scholar
  9. Boyes, M. E., Leitao, S., Claessen, M., & Badc, N. A. (2016). Why are reading difficulties associated with mental health problems? Dyslexia: An International Journal of Research and Practice, 22, 263–266. Scholar
  10. Brigman, G., & Webb, L. (2007). Student success skills: Impacting achievement through large and small group work. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 11, 283–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brooks-Gunn, J. (2003). Do you believe in magic? What we can expect from early childhood intervention programs. Social Policy Report: Giving Child and Youth Development Knowledge Away, 17, 3–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brunner, M. (1993). Retarding America: The imprisonment of potential. Portland, Oregon: Halcyon House.Google Scholar
  13. Bryant, A., Schulenberg, J., O’Malley, P., Bachman, J., & Johnston, L. (2003). How academic achievement, attitudes, and behaviors relate to the course of substance use during adolescence: A 6-year, multinational longitudinal study. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 13, 361–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Buhs, E. S., Ladd, G. W., & Herald, S. (2006). Peer exclusion and victimization: Processes that mediate the relation between peer group rejection and children’s classroom engagement and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cambourne, B. L., & Turbill, J. B. (2007). Looking back to look forward: Understanding the present by revisiting the past: An Australian perspective. International Journal of Progressive Education, 3, 8–29.Google Scholar
  16. Catalano, R. F., Mazza, J. J., Harachi, T. W., Abbott, R. D., Haggerty, K. P., & Fleming, C. B. (2003). Raising healthy children through enhancing social development in elementary school: Results after 1.5 years. Journal of School Psychology, 41, 143–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chall, J. S. (1967). Learning to read: The great debate. New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  18. Chessman, E. A., McGuire, J. M., Shankweiler, D., & Coyne, M. (2009). First-year teacher knowledge of phonemic awareness and its instruction. Teacher Education and Special Education: The Journal of the Teacher Education Division of the Council for Exceptional Children, 32, 270–289. Scholar
  19. Clanton Harpine, E. (2008). Group interventions in schools: Promoting mental health for at-risk children and youth. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clanton Harpine, E. (2013a). After-school prevention programs for at-risk students: Promoting engagement and academic success. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Clanton Harpine, E. (2013b). Erasing failure in the classroom, vol. 3: The Reading Orienteering Club, using vowel clustering in an after-school program. North Augusta, SC: Group-Centered Learning.Google Scholar
  22. Clanton Harpine, E. (2015). Group-centered prevention in mental health: Theory, training, and practice. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Coll, C. G., & Marks, A. K. (2012). The immigrant paradox in children and adolescents: Is becoming American a developmental risk. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cooper, H., Robinson, J. C., & Patall, E. A. (2006). Does homework improve academic achievement? A synthesis of research, 1987–2003. Review of Educational Research, 76, 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cortiella, C., & Horowitz, S. H. (2014). The state of learning disabilities: Facts, trends and emerging issues. New York: National Center for Learning Disabilities.Google Scholar
  26. Cross, A. B., Gottfredson, D. C., Wilson, D. M., Rorie, M., & Connell, N. (2010). Implementation quality and positive experiences in after-school programs. American Journal of Community Psychology, 45, 370–380. Scholar
  27. Curby, T. W., Rudasill, K. M., Edwards, T., & Pérez-Edgar, K. (2011). The role of classroom quality in ameliorating the academic and social risk associated with difficult temperament. School Psychology Quarterly, 26, 175–188. Scholar
  28. Daniel, S. S., & Goldston, D. B. (2009). Interventions for suicidal youth: A review of the literature and developmental considerations. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior, 39, 252–268. Scholar
  29. Davidai, S., & Gilovich, T. (2018). How should we think about American’s perceptions of socio-economic mobility? Judgment and Decision Making, 13, 297–304.Google Scholar
  30. Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 627–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., Ryan, R. M., & Cameron, J. (2001). Extrinsic rewards and intrinsic motivation in education: Reconsidered once again: Comment/reply. Review of Educational Research, 71, 1–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. de Graaf, S., Bosman, A. M. T., Hasselman, F., & Verhoeven, L. (2009). Systematic phonics instruction. Scientific Studies of Reading, 13, 318–333. Scholar
  33. Di Domenico, S. I., & Ryan, R. M. (2017). The emerging neuroscience of intrinsic motivation; a new frontier in self-determination research. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 11, 1–14. Scholar
  34. Durlak, J. A., & Weissberg, R. P. (2007). The impact of after-school programs that promote personal and social skills. Chicago: Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning.Google Scholar
  35. Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., & Pachan, M. (2010). A meta-analysis of after-school programs that seek to promote personal and social skills in children and adolescents. American Journal of Community Psychology, 45, 294–309. Scholar
  36. Feliciano, C. (2001). The benefits of biculturalism: Exposure to immigrant culture and dropping out of school among Asian and Latino youths. Social Science Quarterly, 82, 865–879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Finn, J. D., Gerber, S. B., & Boyd-Zaharias, J. (2005). Small classes in the early grades, academic achievement, and graduating from high school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 214–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fleming, C. B., Harachi, T. W., Cortes, R. C., Abbott, R. D., & Catalano, R. F. (2004). Level and change in reading scores and attention problems during elementary school as predictors of problem behavior in middle school. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 12, 130–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Foorman, B. R. (1995). Research on ‘the great Debate’: Code-oriented versus whole language approaches to reading instruction. School Psychology Review, 24, 376–392.Google Scholar
  40. Foorman, B. R., & Torgesen, J. (2001). Critical elements of classroom and small group instruction promote reading success in all children. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 16, 203–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Foorman, B. R., Breier, J. I., & Fletcher, J. M. (2003). Interventions aimed at improving reading success: An evidence-based approach. Developmental Neuropsychology, 24, 613–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Foorman, B. R., Herrera, S., Petscher, Y., Mitchell, A., & Truckenmiller, A. (2015). The structure of oral language and reading and their relationship to comprehension in kindergarten through grade 2. Reading and Writing, 28, 655–681. Scholar
  43. Foorman, B., Beyler, N., Borradaile, K., Coyne, M., Denton, C. A., Dimino, J., et al. (2016). Foundational skills to support reading for understanding in kindergarten through 3rd grade (NCEE 2016–4008). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.Google Scholar
  44. Froiland, J. M., & Worrell, F. C. (2016). Intrinsic motivation, learning goals, engagement, and achievement in a diverse high school. Psychology in the Schools, 53, 321–336. Scholar
  45. Galuschka, K., Ise, E., Krick, K., & Schulte-Korne, G. (2014). Effectiveness of treatment approaches for children and adolescents with reading disabilities. PLoS One, 9(2), e89900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gándara, P., & Contreras, F. (2010). The Latino education crisis: The consequences of failed social policies. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Gianaros, P. J., Marsland, A. L., Sheu, L. K., Erickson, K. I., & Verstynen, T. D. (2012). Inflammatory pathways link socioeconomic inequalities to white matter architecture. Cerebral Cortex, 23, 2058–2071. Scholar
  48. Gloria, A. M., Castellanos, J., & Orozco, V. (2005). Perceived educational barriers, cultural fit, coping responses, and psychological Well-being of Latina undergraduates. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 27, 161–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Greenberg, M., Domitrovich, C., & Bumbarger, B. (2001). The prevention of mental disorders in school-aged children: Current state of the field. Prevention and Treatment, 4, Article 0001a. Retrieved May 9, 2005, from 4/pre0040001a.html
  50. Greenberg, M., Weissberg, R. P., O’Brien, M. U., Zins, J. E., Fredricks, L., Resnick, H., et al. (2003). Enhancing school-based prevention and youth development through coordinated social, emotional, and academic learning. American Psychologist, 58, 466–474. Scholar
  51. Hair, N. L., Hanson, J. L., Wolfe, B. L., & Pollak, S. D. (2015). Association of child poverty, brain development, and academic achievement. JAMA Pediactrics, 169, 822–829. Scholar
  52. Herman, K. C., Lambert, S. F., Reinke, W. M., & Ialongo, N. S. (2008). Low academic competence in first grade as a risk factor for depressive cognitions and symptoms in middle school. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 55, 400–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hoglund, W. L., & Leadbeater, B. J. (2004). The effects of family, school, and classroom ecologies on changes in children’s social competence and emotional and behavioral problems in first grade. Developmental Psychology, 40, 533–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Horne, A. M., Stoddard, J. L., & Bell, C. D. (2007). Group approaches to reducing aggression and bullying in school. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 11, 262–271. Scholar
  55. Huang, L., Stroul, B., Friedman, R., Mrazek, P., Friesen, B., Pires, S., et al. (2005). Transforming mental health care for children and their families. American Psychologist, 60, 615–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jaureguizar, J., Garaigordobil, M., & Bernaras, E. (2018). Self-concept, social skills, and resilience as moderators of the relationship between stress and childhood depression. School Mental Health, 10, 488–499. Scholar
  57. Jednoróg, K., Altarelli, I., Monzalvo, K., Fluss, J., Dubois, J., Billard, C., et al. (2012). The influence of socioeconomic status on children’s brain structure. PLoS One, 7, e42486. Scholar
  58. Jones, D. E., Greenberg, M., & Crowley, M. (2015). Early social-emotional functioning and public health: The relationship between kindergarten social competence in future wellness. American Journal of Public Health, 105, 2283–2290. Scholar
  59. Keller, T. A., & Just, M. A. (2009). Altering cortical connectivity: Remediation-induced changes in the white matter of poor readers. Neuron, 64, 624–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kellam, S. G., Rebok, G. W., Mayer, L. S., Ialongo, N., & Kalodner, C. R. (1994). Depressive symptoms over first grade and their response to a developmental epidemiological based preventive trial aimed at improving achievement. Development and Psychopathology, 6, 463–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kern, L., Mathur, S. R., Albrecht, S. F., Poland, S., Rozalski, M., & Russell, J. S. (2017). The need for school-based mental health services and recommendations for implementation. School Mental Health, 9, 205–217. Scholar
  62. Kilpatrick, D. A. (2016). Equipped for reading success: A comprehensive, step-by-step program for developing phonemic awareness and fluent word recognition. Syracuse, NY: Casey & Kirsch Publishers.Google Scholar
  63. Kulic, K. R., Horne, A. M., & Dagley, J. C. (2004). A comprehensive review of prevention groups for children and adolescents. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 8, 139–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kuppen, S., Huss, M., Fosker, T., Fegan, N., & Goswami, U. (2011). Basic auditory processing skills and phonological awareness in low IQ readers and typically developing controls. Scientific Studies of Reading, 15, 211–243. Scholar
  65. Kvarme, L. G., Helseth, S., Sorum, R., Luth-Hansen, V., Haugland, S., & Natvig, G. K. (2010). The effect of a solution-focused approach to improve self-efficacy to improve self-efficacy in socially withdrawn school children: A non-randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47, 1389–1396. Scholar
  66. Linley, P. A., & Proctor, C. (2013). Surveying the landscape of positive psychology for children and adolescents. In C. Proctor & P. A. Linley (Eds.), Research applications and interventions for children and adolescents: A positive psychology perspective (pp. 1–9). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  67. Lynch, A. D., Ferris, K. A., Burkhard, B., Wang, J., Hershberg, R. M., & Lerner, R. M. (2016). Character development within youth development programs: Exploring multiple dimensions of activity involvement. American Journal of Community Psychology, 57, 73–86. Scholar
  68. Lyon, G. R. (July 10, 1997). Hearing on literacy: Why kids can’t read. Testimony before the committee on education and the workforce. U.S. house of representatives. Retrieved November 27, 2006, From.
  69. Lyon, G. R. (April 28, 1998). Overview of reading and literacy initiatives. Testimony before the committee on labor and human resources, senate Dirksen building. Retrieved November 27, 2006, from
  70. Lyon, G. R. (2002). Reading development, reading difficulties, and reading instruction educational and public health issues. Journal of School Psychology, 40, 3–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lyon, G. R., & Chhabra, V. (2004). What research says about reading. Educational Leadership, 61, 12–17.Google Scholar
  72. Lusebrink, V. B. (2010). Assessment and therapeutic application of the expressive therapies continuum. Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association, 24, 166–170. Scholar
  73. Malchiodi, C. A. (Ed.). (2011). Handbook of art therapy. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  74. Marmarosh, C. L., Dunton, E. C., & Amendola, C. (2014). Groups fostering a culture of change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  75. Maugban, R. R., Rowe, R., Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2003). Reading problems and depressed mood. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 219–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Maxwell, S., Reynolds, K. J., Lee, E., Subasic, E., & Bromhead, D. (2017). The impact of school climate and school identification on academic achievement: Multilevel modeling with student and teacher data. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 2069. Scholar
  77. Meyler, A., Keller, T. A., Cherkassky, V. L., Gabrieli, J. D., & Just, M. A. (2008). Modifying the brain activation of poor readers during sentence comprehension with extended remedial instruction: A longitudinal study of neuroplasticity. Neuropsychologia, 46, 2580–2592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Moates, L. (2007). Whole-language high jinks: How to tell when “Scientifically-Based Reading Instruction” isn’t. Washington DC: Thomas B. Fordham Institute.Google Scholar
  79. Morgan, P. L., Farkas, G., & Wu, Q. (2012). Do poor readers feel angry, sad, and unpopular? Scientific Studies of Reading, 16, 360–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Murayama, K., Matsumoto, M., Izuma, K., & Matsumoto, K. (2010). Neural basis of the undermining effect of monetary reward on intrinsic motivation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107, 20911–20916. Scholar
  81. Nastasi, B. K., Moore, R. B., & Varjas, K. M. (2004). School-based mental health services: Creating comprehensive and culturally specific programs. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. National Center for Adult Literacy [NCAL]. (2007). The condition of education 2007 (NCES 2007–064). National Center for education statistics, National Institute of Literacy. Washington, D C: U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  83. National Center for Education Statistics [NCES]. (2016). The condition of education 2016 (NCES 2016–144). Washington DC: Institute of Education Sciences, US Department of Education.Google Scholar
  84. National Center for Education Statistics [NCES]. (2017). The condition of education 2017 (NCES 2017–144). Washington DC: Institute of Education Sciences, US Department of Education.Google Scholar
  85. National Center for Education Statistics [NCES]. (2018). The condition of education 2018 (NCES 2018–144). Washington DC: Institute of Education Sciences, US Department of Education.Google Scholar
  86. National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction (NIH publication no. 00–4754). Washington, DC: National Institute for Literacy.Google Scholar
  87. Oakhill, J. V., & Cain, K. (2012). The precursors of reading ability in young readers: Evidence from a four-year longitudinal study. Scientific Studies of Reading, 16, 91–121. Scholar
  88. Orfield, G., & Lee, C. (2005). Why segregation matters: Poverty and educational inequality. In The civil right project at Harvard University. Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  89. Orton, S. T. (1929). The “sight reading” method of teaching reading, as a source of reading disability. Journal of Educational Psychology, 20, 135–143. Scholar
  90. Pai, H., Sears, D. A., & Maeda, Y. (2015). Effects of small-group learning on transfer: A meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 27, 79–102. Scholar
  91. Prilleltensky, I., Nelson, G., & Pierson, L. (2001). The role of power and control in children’s lives: An ecological analysis of pathways toward wellness, resilience and problems. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 11, 143–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pressley, M., Graham, S., & Harris, K. (2006). The state of educational intervention research as viewed through the lens of literacy intervention. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 1–19. Scholar
  93. Pugh, K. R., Mencl, W. E., Jenner, A. R., Lee, J. R., Katz, L., Frost, S. J., et al. (2001). Neuroimaging studies of reading development and reading disability. Learning Disabilities: Research and Practice, 16, 240–249.Google Scholar
  94. Rayner, K., Foorman, B. R., Perfetti, C. A., Pesetsky, D., & Seidenberg, M. S. (2001). How psychological science informs the teaching of reading. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 2, 31–74. Scholar
  95. Reeve, J., & Lee, W. (2014). Students’ classroom engagement produces longitudinal changes in classroom motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106, 527–540. Scholar
  96. Robinson, L. R., Holbrook, J. R., Bitsko, R. H., Hartwig, S. A., Kaminski, J. W., Ghandour, R. M., et al. (2017). Differences in health care, family, and community factors associated with mental, behavioral, and developmental disorders among children aged 2–8 years in rural and urban areas—United States, 2011–2012. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Surveillance Summaries, 66(SS-8), 1–11.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Rodriguez, N., Bingham Mira, C., Paez, N. D., & Myers, H. F. (2007). Exploring the complexities of familism and acculturation: Central constructs for people of Mexican origin. American Journal of Community Psychology, 39, 61–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Roth, J. L., Malone, L. M., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2010). Does the amount of participation in afterschool programs relate to developmental outcomes? A review of the literature. American Journal of Community Psychology, 45, 310–324. Scholar
  99. Rubin, H. J., & Rubin, I. S. (2005). Qualitative interviewing—The art of hearing data (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and Well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2017). Self-determination theory: Basic psychological needs in motivation development and wellness. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  102. Ryan, R. M., & Di Domenico, S. I. (2016). Distinct motivations and their differentiated mechanisms: Reflections on the emerging neuroscience of human motivation. In S. Kim, J. Reeve, & M. Bong (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement: Recent developments in neuroscience research on human motivation (pp. 349–369). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing.Google Scholar
  103. Salmela-Aro, K., Moeller, J., Schneider, B., Spicer, J., & Lavonen, J. (2016). Integrating the light and dark sides of student engagement using person-oriented and situation-specific approaches. Learning and Instruction, 43, 61–70. Scholar
  104. Shaywitz, S. (2003). Overcoming dyslexia: A new and complete science-based program for reading problems at any level. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  105. Shaywitz, S., & Shaywitz, B. (2007). Special topic: What neuroscience really tells us about reading instruction: A response to Judy Willis. Educational Leadership: Improving Instruction for Students with Learning Needs, 64(5), 74–76.Google Scholar
  106. Sideridis, G. D., Simos, P., Mousaki, A., Stamovlasis, D., & Georgiau, G. K. (2018). Can the relationship between rapid automatized naming and word reading be explained by a catastrophe? Empirical evidence from students with and without reading difficulties. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 52, 59–70. Scholar
  107. Snowden, L. R. (2005). Racial, cultural and ethnic disparities in health and mental health: Toward theory and research at community levels. American Journal of Community Psychology, 35, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Taylor, G., Jungert, T., Mageau, G. A., Schattke, K., Dedic, H., Rosenfield, S., et al. (2014). A self-determination theory approach to predicting school achievement over time: The unique role of intrinsic motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 39, 342–358. Scholar
  109. Theeboom, T., Beersma, B., & Van Vianen, A. E. M. (2015). The differential effects of solution-focused and problem-focused coaching questions on the affect, attentional control, and cognitive flexibility of undergraduate students. The Journal of Positive Psychology. Scholar
  110. Toppelberg, C. O., Munir, K., & Nieto-Castañon, A. (2006). Spanish-English bilingual children with psychopathology: Language deficits and academic language proficiency. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 11, 156–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Torgesen, J. K., Alexander, A. W., Wagner, R. K., Rashotte, C. A., Voeller, K. S., & Conway, T. (2001). Intensive remedial instruction for children with severe reading disabilities: Immediate and long-term outcomes from two instructional approaches. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34, 133–158. Scholar
  112. Vaughn, S., Denton, C. A., & Fletcher, J. M. (2010). Why intensive interactions are necessary for students with severe reading difficulties. Psychology in the Schools, 47, 432–444.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. Yalom, I. D., & Leszcz, M. (2005). The theory and practice of group psychotherapy (5th ed.). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  114. Yohalem, N., & Wilson-Ahlstrom, A. (2010). Inside the black box: Assessing and improving quality in youth programs. American Journal of Community Psychology, 45, 350–357. Scholar
  115. Yoncheva, Y. N., Wise, J., & McCandliss, B. (2015). Hemispheric specialization for visual words is shaped by attention to sublexical units during initial learning. Brain and Language, 145–146, 22–33. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elaine Clanton Harpine
    • 1
  1. 1.University of South Carolina AikenAikenUSA

Personalised recommendations