Theory: Foundations of Quality in Natural and Synthesized Speech

  • Benjamin Weiss
Part of the T-Labs Series in Telecommunication Services book series (TLABS)


Speech is one of the most important modes to communicate and interact in human–human interaction (HHI). It contains semantic and pragmatic meaning, often in an underspecified and indirect way, by referencing to situational and world knowledge.


  1. 1.
    Abele, A.E., Cuddy, A.J.C., Judd, C.M., Yzerbyt, V.Y.: Fundamental dimensions of social judgment. Editorial to the special issue. Eur. J. Soc. Psychol. 38(7), 1063–1065 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 3.
    Ajzen, I., Fishbein, M.: Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1980)Google Scholar
  3. 5.
    Ambady, N., Bernieri, F.J., Richeson, J.A.: Toward a histology of social behavior: judgmental accuracy from thin slices of the behavioral stream. In: Zanna, M.P. (ed.) Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 32, pp. 201–272. Academic Press, San Diego (2000)Google Scholar
  4. 6.
    Ambady, N., Rosenthal, R.: Half a minute: predicting teacher evaluations from thin slices of nonverbal behavior and physical attractiveness. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 64, 431–441 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 7.
    Ambady, N., Skowronski, J.J. (eds.): First Impressions. Guilford Press, New York (2008)Google Scholar
  6. 8.
    Ambady, N., Krabbenhoft, M.A., Hogan, D.: The 30-sec sale: using thin slice judgments to evaluate sales effectiveness. J. Consult. Psychol. 16, 4–13 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 13.
    Argyle, M.: Bodily Communication. Methuen, New York (1988)Google Scholar
  8. 14.
    Argyle, M., Dean, J.: Eye-contact, distance and affiliation. Sociometry 28, 289–304 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 15.
    Aronson, E., Wilson, T., Akert, R.M.: Social Psychology, 7th edn. Prentice Hall (2009)Google Scholar
  10. 16.
    Bachorowski, J.A., Owren, M.: Sounds of emotion: Production and perception of affect-related vocal acoustics. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1000, 244–265 (2003)Google Scholar
  11. 19.
    Bailenson, J.N., Blascovich, J., Beall, A.C., M., J.: Equilibrium theory revisited: Mutual gaze and personal space in virtual environment. Presence 10, 583–598 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 23.
    Bar, M., Neta, M., Linz, H.: Very first impressions. Emotion 6(2), 269–278 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 24.
    Baraković, S., Skorin-Kapov, L.: Survey of research on quality of experience modelling for web browsing. Quality User Experience 2:6, 1–31 (2017)Google Scholar
  14. 29.
    Bem, D.: Beliefs, attitudes, and human affairs. Brooks/Cole, Belmont (1970)Google Scholar
  15. 32.
    Bergmann, K., Eyssel, F., Kopp, S.: A second chance to make a first impression? How appearance and nonverbal behavior affect perceived warmth and competence of virtual agents over time. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents, pp. 126–138. Springer, Berlin (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 37.
    Birkholz, P., Martin, L., Xu, Y., Scherbaum, S., Neuschaefer-Rube, C.: Manipulation of the prosodic features of vocal tract length, nasality and articulatory precision using articulatory synthesis. Comput. Speech Lang. 41, 116–127 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 47.
    Brown, B., Giles, H., Thakerar, J.: Speaker evaluation as a function of speech rate, accent, and context. Lang. Commun. 5(3), 207–220 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 48.
    Brown, B.L., Strong, W.J., Rencher, A.C.: Perceptions of personality from speech: effects of manipulations of acoustical parameter. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 54(1), 29–35 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 53.
    Burgoon, J., Buller, D., Hale, J., Turck, M.: Relational messages associated with nonverbal behaviors. Hum. Commun. Res. 10, 351–378 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 57.
    Burmester, M., Mast, M., Jäger, K., Homans, H.: Valence method for formative evaluation of user experience. In: Proceedings of the 8th ACM Conference on Designing Interactive Systems, pp. 364–367. ACM, New York (2010)Google Scholar
  21. 62.
    Cafaro, A., Vilhjálmsson, H., Bickmore, T.: First impressions in human–agent virtual encounters. ACM Trans. Comput. Hum. Interact. 23, 24:1–40 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 64.
    Callejas, Z., Ravenet, B., Ochs, M., Pelachaud, C.: A computational model of social attitudes for a virtual recruiter. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS), pp. 93–100 (2014)Google Scholar
  23. 65.
    Castro-González, A., Admoni, H., Scassellati, B.: Effects of form and motion on judgments of social robots’ animacy. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. 90, 27–38 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 69.
    Collins, S.: Men’s voices and women’s choices. Anim. Behav. 60(6), 773–780 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 70.
    Collins, S., Missing, C.: Vocal and visual attractiveness are related in women. Anim. Behav. 65(5), 997–1004 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 74.
    Cuddy, A.J., Fiske, S.T., Glick, P.: Warmth and competence as universal dimensions of social perception: the stereotype content model and the bias map. Adv. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 40, 62–149 (2008)Google Scholar
  27. 76.
    Curhan, J.R., Pentland, A.: Thin slices of negotiation: Predicting outcomes from conversational dynamics within the first 5 minutes. J. Appl. Psychol. 92(3), 802–811 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 79.
    Davis, F.: Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Q. 13, 319–340 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 82.
    DeGroot, T., Motowidlo, S.J.: Why visual and vocal interview cues can affect interviewers’ judgments and predict job performance. J. Appl. Psychol. 84(6), 986–993 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 83.
    Dehn, D., van Mulken, S.: The impact of animated interface agents: a review of empirical research. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. 52, 1–22 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 85.
    Demeure, V., Niewiadomski, R., Pelachaud, C.: How believability of virtual agent is linked to warmth, competence, personification and embodiment? Presence 20(5), 431–448 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 86.
    DePaulo, B.M., Kenny, D.A., Hoover, C.W., Webb, W., Oliver, P.V.: Accuracy of person perception: Do people know what kinds of impressions they convey? J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 52(2), 303–315 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 88.
    Dohen, M.: Speech through the ear, the eye, the mouth and the hand. In: Esposito, A., Hussain, A., Marinaro, M. (eds.) Multimodal Signals: Cognitive and Algorithmic Issues. Springer, Berlin (2009)Google Scholar
  34. 91.
    Eagly, A.H., Chaiken, S.: The Psychology of Attitudes. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Fort Worth (1993)Google Scholar
  35. 102.
    Feinberg, D.: Are human faces and voices ornaments signaling common underlying cues to mate value? Evol. Anthropol. Issues News Rev. 17(2), 112–118 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 105.
    Ferdenzi, C., Patel, S., Mehu-Blantar, I., Khidasheli, M., Sander, D., Delplanque, S.: Voice attractiveness: influence of stimulus duration and type. Behav. Res. Methods 45, 405–413 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 106.
    Ferguson, M.J., Fukukura, J.: Likes and dislikes: A social cognitive perspective on attitudes. In: Fiske, S.T., Macrae, C.N. (eds.) The SAGE Handbook of Social Cognition, pp. 165–186. SAGE Publications, London (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 112.
    Fiske, S., Pavelchak, M.: Category-based versus piecemeal-based affective responses: developments in schema-triggered affect. In: Sorrentino, R., Higgins, E. (eds.) The Handbook of Motivation and Cognition: Foundation of Social Behaviour, pp. 167–203. Guilford Press, New York (1986)Google Scholar
  39. 113.
    Fiske, S.T., Cuddy, A.J., Glick, P.: Universal dimensions of social cognition: warmth and competence. Trends Cogn. Sci. 11(2), 77–83 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 115.
    Floyd, K., Erbert, L.: Relational message interpretations of nonverbal matching behavior: an application of the social meaning model. J. Soc. Psychol. 143, 581–597 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 116.
    Foster, M.: Enhancing human-computer interaction with embodied conversational agents. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction: Ambient Interaction, pp. 828–837 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 120.
    Gövercin, M., Meyer, S., Schellenbach, M., Steinhagen-Thiessen, E., Weiss, B., Haesner, M.: Smartsenior@home: Acceptance of an integrated ambient assisted living system. results of a clinical field trial in 35 households. Inform. Health Soc. Care 41, 1–18 (2016)Google Scholar
  43. 123.
    Gilbert, D., Malone, P.: The correspondence bias. Psychol. Bull. 17, 21–38 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 126.
    Goldstein, E., Brockmole, J.: Sensation and Perception, 10th edn. Cengage Learning, Boston (2016)Google Scholar
  45. 127.
    Gottman, J., Notarius, C.: Decade review: observing marital interaction. Interactions 62, 927–947 (2000)Google Scholar
  46. 128.
    Goudbeek, M., Scherer, K.: Beyond arousal: Valence and potency/control cues in the vocal expression of emotion. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 128(3), 1322–1336 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 135.
    Guerin, B.: Social Facilitation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 139.
    Haris, M., Garris, C.: You never get a second chance to make a first impression. In: Ambady, N., Skowronski, J.J. (eds.): First Impressions, pp. 147–167. Guilford Press, New York (2008)Google Scholar
  49. 142.
    Hart, R.J., Brown, B.L.: Personality information contained in the verbal qualities and in content aspects of speech. Speech Monograp. 41, 271–380 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 144.
    Hassenzahl, M., Monk, A.: The inference of perceived usability from beauty. Hum. Comput. Interact. 25(3), 235–260 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 145.
    Hassenzahl, M., Wessler, R.: Capturing design space from a user perspective: the repertory grid technique revisited. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Interact. 12(3,4), 441–459 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 146.
    Hecht, M.A., LaFrance, M.: How (fast) can i help you? Tone of voice and telephone operator efficiency in interactions. J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 25(23), 2086–2098 (1995)Google Scholar
  53. 149.
    Herkner, W.: Lehrbuch Sozialpsychologie. Huber, Bern (1991)Google Scholar
  54. 154.
    Huston, T.L., Levinger, G.: Interpersonal attraction and relationships. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 29, 115–156 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 157.
    ISO 9421-210: Ergonomics of human system interaction, Part 210: Human-centred design for interactive systems. ISO, Geneva (2010)Google Scholar
  56. 161.
    ITU-T Rec. E.800: Definitions of Terms Related to Quality of Service. International Telecommunication Union, Geneva (2008)Google Scholar
  57. 171.
    Jones, E.E.: Interpersonal Perception. Freeman and Company, New York (1990)Google Scholar
  58. 177.
    Kahneman, D.: Experienced utility and objective happiness: a moment-based approach. In: Choices, Values and Frames, pp. 673–692. Cambridge University Press, New York (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 178.
    Kaplan, K., Firestone, I., Klein, K., Sodikoff, C.: Distancing in dyads: a comparison of four models. Soc. Psychol. Q. 46, 108–115 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 179.
    Karacora, B., Dehghani, M., Krämer-Mertens, N., Gratch, J.: The influence of virtual agents‘ gender and rapport on enhancing math performance. In: Proceedings of the COGSCI, pp. 563–568 (2012)Google Scholar
  61. 181.
    Köster, F., Schiffner, F., Möller, S., Malfait, L.: Towards degradation decomposition for voice communication system assessment. Quality User Experience 2:4, 1–22 (2017)Google Scholar
  62. 183.
    Kelly, G.: The Psychology of Personal Constructs. Norton, New York (1955)Google Scholar
  63. 184.
    Kennedy, J., Baxter, P., Belpaeme, T.: Comparing robot embodiments in a guided discovery learning interaction with children. Int. J. Soc. Robot. 7, 293–308 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 186.
    Kenny, D.A.: Interpersonal Perception: A social relations analysis. Guilford Press, New York (1994)Google Scholar
  65. 192.
    Knapp, M.L.: Social Intercourse: From Greeting to Goodbye. S. Allyn and Bacon, Needham Heights, MA (1978)Google Scholar
  66. 193.
    Knapp, M., Hall, J.: Nonverbal Communication in Human Interaction. Thomas Learning, Wadsworth (2010)Google Scholar
  67. 194.
    Knapp, M.L., Vangelisti, A.L., Caughlin, J.P.: Interpersonal Communication and Human Relationships, 7th edn. Pearson, London (2014)Google Scholar
  68. 196.
    Kolkmeier, J., Vroon, J., Heylen, D.: Interacting with virtual agents in shared space: single and joint effects of gaze and proxemics. In: Proceedings of the Intelligent Virtual Agents, pp. 1–14 (2016)Google Scholar
  69. 199.
    Krämer, N., Hoffmann, L., Kopp, S.: Know your users! empirical results for tailoring an agent’s nonverbal behavior to different user groups. In: Proceedings of the Intelligent Virtual Agents, pp. 468–474 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 201.
    Krämer, N., Simons, N., Kopp, S.: The effects of an embodied agent’s nonverbal behaviour on user’s evaluation and behavioral mimicry. In: Proceedings of the Intelligent Virtual Agents, pp. 238–251 (2007)Google Scholar
  71. 203.
    Krauss, R., Freyberg, R., Morsella, E.: Inferring speakers’ physical attributes from their voices. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 38(6), 618–625 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 204.
    Krause, S., Back, M.D., Egloff, B., Schmukle, S.C.: Implicit interpersonal attraction in small groups automatically activated evaluations predict actual behavior toward social partners. Soc. Psychol. Personal. Sci. 20, 671–679 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 207.
    Krosnick., J.A., Judd, C.M., Wittenbrink, B.: The measurement of attitudes. In: Albarracín, D., Johnson, B.T., Zanna, M.P. (eds.) The Handbook of Attitudes, pp. 21–76. Erlbaum, Mahwah, New York (2005)Google Scholar
  74. 208.
    Kujala, S., Roto, V., Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila, K., Karapanos, E., Sinnelä, A.: UX curve: a method for evaluating long-term user experience. Interact. Comput. 23(5), 473–483 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 209.
    Kulviwat, S., II, G.B., Kumar, A., Nasco, S., Clark, T.: Toward a unified theory of consumer acceptance technology. Psychol. Mark. 24, 1059–1084 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 213.
    Laver, J.: The Phonetic Description of Voice Quality. University Press, Cambridge (1980)Google Scholar
  77. 215.
    Law, E., Roto, V., Hassenzahl, M., Vermeeren, A., Kort, J.: Understanding, scoping and defining User Experience: a survey approach. In: Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI, pp. 719–728 (2009)Google Scholar
  78. 216.
    Le Callet, P., Möller, S., Perkis, A.: Qualinet white paper on definitions of Quality of Experience, version 1.1, June 3, 2012 (2012). European Network on Quality of Experience in Multimedia Systems and Services (COST Action IC 1003)
  79. 219.
    Lee, K.M., Jung, Y., Kim, J., Kim, S.R.: Are physically embodied social agents better than disembodied social agents? the effects of physical embodiment, tactile interaction, and people’s loneliness in human-robot interaction. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. 64, 962–973 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 221.
    Levinger, G., Snoek, J.D.: Attraction in Relationship: A New Look at Interpersonal Attraction. General Learning Press, Morristown (1972)Google Scholar
  81. 226.
    Li, J.: The benefit of being physically present: A survey of experimental works comparing copresent robots, telepresent robots and virtual agents. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. 77, 23–37 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 238.
    Möller, S., Raake, A.: Motivation and introduction. In: Möller, S., Raake, A. (eds.) Quality of Experience: Advanced Concepts, Applications and Methods, pp. 3–10. Springer, Heidelberg (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 239.
    Möller, S., Raake, A. (eds.): Quality of Experience: Advanced Concepts, Applications and Methods. Springer, Heidelberg (2014)Google Scholar
  84. 246.
    McCroskey, J., McCain, T.: The measurement of interpersonal attraction. Speech Monogr. 41, 261–266 (1974)Google Scholar
  85. 248.
    McDonnell, R., Breidt, M., Bülthoff, H.: Render me real? Investigating the effect of render style on the perception of animated virtual humans. ACM Trans. Graph. 31(4), 91, 1–11 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 251.
    Mead, R., Atrash, A., Matarić, M.J.: Automated proxemic feature extraction and behavior recognition: applications in human-robot interaction. Int. J. Soc. Robot. 5, 367–378 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 253.
    Mehrabian, A., Russell, J.: An Approach to Environmental Psychology. MIT Press, Cambridge (1974)Google Scholar
  88. 257.
    Mumm, J., Mutlu, B.: Human-robot proxemics: Physical and psychological distancing in human-robot interaction. In: Proceedings of the Human-Robot Interaction, pp. 331–338 (2011)Google Scholar
  89. 262.
    Nassiri, N., Powell, N., Moore, D.: Equilibrium theory revisited: mutual gaze and personal space in virtual environment. Virtual Reality 14, 229–240 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 270.
    Osgood, C.E., Suci, G., Tannenbaum, P.: The Measurement of Meaning. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL (1957)Google Scholar
  91. 271.
    Oviatt, S., Cohen, P.R.: The Paradigm Shift to Multimodality in Contemporary Computer Interfaces. Synthesis Lectures on Human-Centered Informatics. Morgan & Claypool, Wadsworth (2015)Google Scholar
  92. 274.
    Paivio, A.: Mental Representations: A Dual Coding Approach. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1986)Google Scholar
  93. 278.
    Pentland, A.: Honest Signals: How They Shape Our World. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 280.
    Peterson, R., Cannito, M., Brown, S.: An exploratory investigation of voice characteristics and selling effectiveness. J. Pers. Sell. Sales Manag. 15(1), 1–15 (1995)Google Scholar
  95. 281.
    Petty, R.E., Wegener, D.T.: The elaboration likelihood model: Current status and controversies. In: Chaiken, S., Trope, Y. (eds.) Dual Process Theories in Social Psychology, pp. 41–72. Guilford Press, New York (1999)Google Scholar
  96. 289.
    Putnam, W.B., Street, R.L.J.: The conception and perception of noncontent speech performance: implications for speech-accommodation theory. Int. J. Sociol. Lang. 46, 97–114 (1984)Google Scholar
  97. 291.
    Raake, A., Egger, S.: Quality and quality of experience. In: Möller, S., Raake, A. (eds.) Quality of Experience: Advanced Concepts, Applications and Methods, pp. 11–33. Springer, Heidelberg (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 295.
    Reeves, B., Nass, C.: The Eedia Equation: How People Treat Computers, Television, and New Media Like Real People and Places. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1996)Google Scholar
  99. 300.
    Riether, N., Hegel, F., Wrede, B., Horstmann, G.: Social facilitation with social robots? In: Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, pp. 41–48. ACM, New York (2012)Google Scholar
  100. 301.
    Riggio, R., H.S., F.: Impression formation: the role of expressive behavior. J. Soc. Psychol. 50, 421–427 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 303.
    Roto, V., Law, E., Vermeeren, A., Hoonhout, J. (eds.): User experience whitepaper: bringing clarity to the concept of user experience (2011). Result from Dagstuhl Seminar on Demarcating User Experience. Accessed 15–18 Sept 2010
  102. 304.
    Rule, N., Ambady, N.: First impressions of the face: Predicting success. Soc. Personal. Psychol. Compass 4, 506–516 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 307.
    Schaller, M.: Evolutionary basis of first impressions. In: Ambady, N., Skowronski, J.J. (eds.) First Impressions, pp. 15–34. Guilford Press, New York (2008)Google Scholar
  104. 310.
    Scherer, K.: Personality inference from voice quality: the loud voice of extraversion. Eur. J. Soc. Psychol. 8, 467–487 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 315.
    Schmitt, M., Bulterman, D.C.A., Cesar, P.S.: The contrast effect: QoE of mixed video-qualities at the same time. Quality User Experience 3:7, 1–17 (2018)Google Scholar
  106. 317.
    Schuller, B., Batliner, A.: Computational Paralinguistics: Emotion, Affect and Personality in Speech and Language Processing. Wiley, London (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 318.
    Schuller, B., Steidl, S., Batliner, A., Nöth, E., Vinciarelli, A., Burkhardt, F., van Son, R., Weninger, F., Eyben, F., Bocklet, T., Mohammadi, G., Weiss, B.: Perceived speaker traits: personality, likability, pathology, and the first challenge. Comput. Speech Lang. 29(1), 100–131 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 319.
    Schulz v. Thun, F.: Miteinander reden: Störungen und Klärungen. Psychologie der zwischenmenschlichen Kommunikation. Rowohlt, Reinbek (1981)Google Scholar
  109. 329.
    Sproull, L., Subramani, M., Kiesler, S., Walker, J., Waters, K.: When the interface is a face. Hum. Comput. Interact. 11, 97–124 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 330.
    Stanton, C., Stevens, K.: Robot pressure: The impact of robot eye gaze and lifelike bodily movements upon decision-making and trust. In: Proceedings of the Social Robotics (ICSR). Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, vol. 8755, pp. 330–339 (2014)Google Scholar
  111. 331.
    Stein, B., Stanford, T., Ramachandran, R., Perrault, T.J., Rowland, B.: Challenges in quantifying multisensory integration: alternative criteria, models, and inverse effectiveness. Exp. Brain Res. 198, 113–126 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 337.
    Street, R.L.J., Brady, R.M.: Speech rate acceptance ranges as a function of evaluative domain, listener speech rate and communication context. Commun. Monogr. 49(4), 290–308 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 341.
    Sunnafrank, M., Ramirez, A.: At first sight: persistent relational effects of get-acquainted conversations. J. Soc. Pers. Relat. 21, 361–379 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 343.
    Takayama, L., Pantofaru, C.: Influences on proxemic behaviors in human-robot interaction. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems. IEEE, Piscataway (2009)Google Scholar
  115. 344.
    Takeuchi, A., Naito, T.: Situated facial displays: towards social interaction. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 450–455 (1995)Google Scholar
  116. 350.
    Todorov, A., Pakrashi, M., Oosterhof, N.: Evaluating faces on trustworthiness after minimal time exposure. Soc. Cogn. 27, 813–833 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 355.
    van der Linden, D., Scholte, R.H., Cillessen, A.H., te Nijenhuis, J., Segers, E.: Classroom ratings of likeability and popularity are related to the Big Five and the general factor of personality. J. Res. Pers. 44, 669–672 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 356.
    van Dommelen, W., Moxness, B.: Acoustic parameters in speaker height and weight identification: sex-specific behaviour. Lang. Speech 38, 267–287 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 358.
    Venkatesh, V., Bala, H.: Technology acceptance model 3 and a research agenda on interventions. Decis. Sci. 39, 273–315 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 359.
    Venkatesh, V., Morris, M., Davis, G., Davis, F.: User acceptance of information technology: toward a unified vie. MIS Q. 27, 425–278 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 361.
    Vogeley, K., Bente, G.: ‘artificial humans’: psychology and neuroscience perspectives on embodiment and nonverbal communication. Neural Netw. 23, 1077–1090 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 363.
    Von der Pütten, A., Krämer, N., Gratch, J.: Who’s there? Can a virtual agent really elicit social presence? In: Proceedings of the PRESENCE, pp. 563–568 (2009)Google Scholar
  123. 364.
    Von der Pütten, A., Krämer, N., Gratch, J.: How our personality shapes our interactions with virtual characters—implications for research and development. In: Proceedings of the Intelligent Virtual Agents, pp. 208–221. Springer, Berlin (2010)Google Scholar
  124. 372.
    Walton, T., Evans, M.: The role of human influence factors on overall listening experience. Quality User Experience 3:1, 1–16 (2018)Google Scholar
  125. 376.
    Wechsung, I., De Moor, K.: Quality of Experience versus User Experience. In: Möller, S., Raake, A. (eds.) Quality of Experience: Advanced Concepts, Applications and Methods, pp. 35–54. Springer, Heidelberg (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 377.
    Wechsung, I., P., E., Schleicher, R., Möller, S.: Investigating the social facilitation effect in human-robot-interaction. In: International Workshop on Spoken Dialogue Systems Technology (IWSDS), pp. 1–10 (2012)Google Scholar
  127. 380.
    Wechsung, I., Engelbrecht, K.P., Kühnel, C., Möller, S., Weiss, B.: Measuring the quality of service and quality of experience of multimodal human-machine interaction. J. Multimodal User Interfaces 6(1), 73–85 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 381.
    Wechsung, I., Schulz, M., Engelbrecht, K.P., Niemann, J., Möller, S.: All users are (not) equal—the influence of user characteristics on perceived quality, modality choice and performance. In: Workshop on Paralinguistic Information and its Integration in Spoken Dialogue Systems (IWSDS), pp. 175–188 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 382.
    Weirich, M.: Die attraktive Stimme: Vocal Stereotypes. Eine phonetische Analyse anhand akustischer und auditiver Parameter. Verlag Dr. Müller, Saarbrücken (2010)Google Scholar
  130. 386.
    Weiss, B.: Voice descriptions by non-experts: validation of a questionnaire. In: Proceedings of the Phonetics & Phonology, pp. 228–231 (2016)Google Scholar
  131. 388.
    Weiss, B., Burkhardt, F.: Is ‘not bad’ good enough? Aspects of unknown voices’ likability. In: 13th Interspeech, Portland, pp. 1–4 (2012)Google Scholar
  132. 397.
    Weiss, B., Möller, S., Schulz, M.: User differences in evaluating multimodal HCI. In: 5th International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions (ACHI), Valencia, pp. 354–359 (2012)Google Scholar
  133. 400.
    Weiss, B., Wechsung, I., Marquardt, S.: Assessing ICT user groups. In: ACM NordiCHI, Copenhagen, pp. 275–283 (2012)Google Scholar
  134. 402.
    Weiss, B., Wechsung, I., Kühnel, C., Möller, S.: Evaluating embodied conversational agents in multimodal interfaces. Comput. Cogn. Sci. 1:6, 1–21 (2015)Google Scholar
  135. 406.
    Weiss, B., Guse, D., Möller, S., Raake, A., Borowiak, A., Reiter, U.: Temporal development of quality of experience. In: Möller, S., Raake, A. (eds.) Quality of Experience: Advanced Concepts, Applications and Methods, pp. 133–147. Springer, Heidelberg (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 412.
    Wortman, J., Wood, D.: The personality traits of liked people. J. Res. Pers. 45, 519–528 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 416.
    Yee, N., Bailenson, J., Rickertsen, K.: A meta-analysis of the impact of the inclusion and realism of human-like faces on user experiences in interfaces. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1–10 (2007)Google Scholar
  138. 417.
    Zuckermann, M., Miyake, K.: The attractive voice: what makes it so? J. Nonverbal Behav. 17, 119–135 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 418.
    Zuckermann, M., Miyake, K.: Beyond personality impressions: effects of physical and vocal attractiveness on false consensus, social comparison, affiliation and assumed and perceived similarity. J. Pers. 61, 411–437 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin Weiss
    • 1
  1. 1.Technische Universität BerlinBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations