Advertisement

The Schools of Tehran and Qum and Wilāya

  • Leila Chamankhah
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Series in Islamic Theology, Law, and History book series (ITLH)

Abstract

The subject matter in this chapter is the study and critical analysis of the concept of wilāya in Mullā Ṣadrā’s legacy, which has been flourished in the Schools of Tehran and Qum. To this aim, the doctrine of wilāya in the philosophy of scholars such as Mullā ʿAbdullāh Zunūzı̄ and his son Āqā ʿAlı̄ Mudarris Tehrānı̄, Mı̄rzā Abul Ḥassan Jilvih, and Āqā Muḥammad Riḍā Qumshiʾı̄ of the School of Tehran, and Muḥammad Hossein Ṭabāṭabāʾı̄ and Mı̄rzā Aḥmad Āshtı̄yānı̄ of the School of Qum are discussed. We observed that the four ḥakı̄ms of the School of Tehran perpetuated ‘the prophetic philosophy’ of Mullā Ṣadrā in their writings and followed his approach and terminology, while the writings of the ḥakı̄ms of the School of Qum, do not display the balance between the ʿirfānı̄ and philosophical reading, as reflected in Ṣadrā’s legacy.

Bibliography

English Books

  1. Al-Aḥsāʾī, Aḥmad, Sharḥ al-Fawāʾid al-Ḥikamīyat al-ʾIthnā ʾAsharīyah (Elaboration on the Philosophical Benefits of Twelver Shī ʿīsm), in Jawāmiʿ al-Kalim (Comprehensive Words), 1430f H, vol. 1, pp. 275–635.Google Scholar
  2. Algar, Hamid, ʿAllāmah Seyyed Muḥammad Hossein Ṭabāṭabāʾī: Philosopher, Exegete and Gnostic, Journal of Islamic Studies 17:3, 2006, pp. 326–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amir Arjomand, Saïd, Political ethic and public law in the early Qajar period, in Religion and Society in Qajar Iran, Robert Gleave (ed) 2005 (London and New York: Routledge Curzon), pp. 21–40.Google Scholar
  4. Bulgakov, Sergei, Sophia; The Wisdom of God: an Outline of Sophiology, 1993 (Hudson: Lindisfarne Press).Google Scholar
  5. Cooper, John, Rūmī and Ḥikmat: Towards a Reading of Sabziwārī’s Commentary on the Mathnawī, in The Heritage of Ṣūfīsm; Classical Persian Ṣūfīsm from its Origins to Rūmī (700-1300), vol. 1, Leonard Lewisohn (ed), 1999 (Oxford: Oneworld), pp. 409–433.Google Scholar
  6. Corbin, Henry, the History of Islamic Philosophy, translated into English by Liadain Sherrard, n.d. (London & New York: Kegan Paul International).Google Scholar
  7. Cronin, Stephanie, Reform from Above, Resistance from Below: the New Order and its Opponents in Iran, 1927-29, in the State and the Subaltern: Modernization, Society and the State in Turkey and Iran, Atabaki, Touraj (ed), 2007 (London & New York: I. B. Tauris Publishers), pp. 71–95.Google Scholar
  8. Gleave, Robert, (ed), Religion and Society in Qajar Iran, 2005 (London and New York: Routledge Curzon).Google Scholar
  9. Ismāʿīl, Zuhair ʿAlī, Between Philosophy and Irfan: Interpreting Ṣadrā From the Qājārs to Post-Revolutionary Iran, Ph.D. thesis, October 2014.Google Scholar
  10. Nasr, Seyyed Hossein and Others (eds), the Study Quran, a New Translation and Commentary, 2015 (New York: HarperCollins Publishers).Google Scholar
  11. Nasr, Seyyed Hossein, Islamic Philosophy from its Origin to the Present; Philosophy in the Land of Prophecy, 2006 (NY, State University of New York Press).Google Scholar
  12. Newman, Andrew J., Anti-Akhbārī sentiments among the Qajar ʿulemā: the case of Muḥammad Bāqir al-Khwānsārī (d.1313/1895), in Religion and Society in Qajar Iran, Robert Gleave (ed), 2005 (London & New York: Routledge Curzon), pp. 155–173.Google Scholar
  13. Rizvi, Sajjad, The Philosopher-Mystic and the Marjaʿīya: the Case of ʿAllāma Ṭabāṭabāʾī [d. 1981] Contesting Authority in the Ḥawza, Shiʿa Studies Workshop, 2015, unpublished article.Google Scholar
  14. Rizvi, Sajjad, Ḥikma Mutaʿāliya in Qajar Iran: Locating the life and work of Mullā Hādī Sabzavārī (d. 1289/1873), Iranian Studies 44.4, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Rizvi, Sajjad, Isfahan, School of Philosophy, in online Encyclopedia Iranica http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/isfahan-school-of-philosophy
  16. Rizvi, Sajjad, Seeking the face of God: the Safavid hikmat Tradition’s Conceptualization of Walaya Takwiniya, in G. Mizkinzoda, M.A. Amir-Moezzi and F. Daftary (eds), The Study of Shiʿi Islam, 2013 (London: I.B. Tauris in association with the Institute of Ismaili Studies), pp. 391–410.Google Scholar
  17. Rizvi, Sajjad, Mullā ʿAlī Nūrī: inheritor and reviver of ḥikmat in Qajar Iran, in Qajar Philosophy, Sabine Schmidtke and Reza Pourjavady (eds), forthcoming (Leiden: Brill).Google Scholar

Persian Books

  1. Amanat, Abbas, Rīshahāy-i Bahāʾī Setyzī Dar Iran (the Causes of anti-Bahāʾīsm in Iran) in Bahāʾīyān-i Iran, Dominic Parviz Brookshaw and Seena B. Fazel, translated into Persian by Houri Rahmani and Erfan Sabeti, fereydoon Wahman, 1390 shamsī/2011 (Sweden: Bārān).Google Scholar
  2. Āshtīyānī, Aḥmad, Bīst Risāla (Twenty Treatises), Riḍā Ostādī (ed), 1383 (Qum: Būstān-i Kitāb-i Qum).Google Scholar
  3. Dhukāʾī Sāwajī, Murtaḍā, Kitāb Shināsīya Hāj Mullā Hādī Sabzivārī (Bibliography of Hāj Mullā Hādī Sabzivārī), Keyhān Farhangī, Farvardīn 1372, No. 96, pp. 22–28.Google Scholar
  4. Gunābādī, Sulṭān ʿAlī Shah, Wilāyat Nāmih (the Book of Wilāya), 2nd edition, 1384 (Tehran: Ḥaqīqat Publication).Google Scholar
  5. Isfandīyār, Maḥmūd Riḍā, Risālay-i Radd-i Pādrī (Refutation on Pādrī), 1387 (Tehran: Ḥaqīqat Publication).Google Scholar
  6. Kadivar, Muhsin, Ḥukūmat-i Wilāyī (Divine Government), 3rd edition, 1378a (Tehran: Ney Publication).Google Scholar
  7. Kadivar, Muhsin, Naẓarīyahāy-i Dawlat dar Fiqh-i Shīʿa (Theories of State in the Shīʿa Jurisprudence), 3rd edition, 1378b (Tehran: Ney Publication).Google Scholar
  8. Nājī Ῑṣfahānī, Ḥāmid, Majmūʿi Ashʿāri Ḥakīm Ṣahbā, Hamrāh ba Zindigīnāmay-i ʿĀrif-i Ilāhī Ḥakīm Āqā Muḥammad Riḍā Qumshiʾī (the Book of Poetry of Ṣahbā, Along With the Biography of the Ḥakīm Āqā Muḥammad Riḍā Qumshiʾī), 1378 (Tehrān: Kānūn Pazhūhish).Google Scholar
  9. Nājī Iṣfahānī, Ḥāmid, Sharḥ-i Ḥadīth al-Nūrānīyya of Mullā ʿAlī Nūrī (the Commentary on the Ḥadīth al-Nūrānīyya of Mullā ʿAlī Nūrī), Journal of Mīrāth-i Ḥadīth-i Shīʿa, No. 15, n.d., pp. 197–232.Google Scholar
  10. Qumshiʾī, Muḥammad Riḍā, Rasāʾil-i Qayṣarī (Qayṣarī’ Treatises), (glosses on), translated into Persian by Seyyed Jalāl al-Dīn Ashtīyānī, 1381 (Tehran: Muʾasasay-i Pazhūhishī-ya Ḥikmat wa Falsafa-yi Iran).Google Scholar
  11. Sabzivārī, Hādī, Sharḥ-i Asrār Mathnawī (Commentary on the Mysteries of Mathnawī), n.d. (n.p.).Google Scholar
  12. Sabzivārī, Hādī, Sharḥ-i Nibrās al-Hudā (Commentary on the Lamp of Guidance), Ṣadr al-Dīn Ṭāhirī (ed), 1384 (Tehran: Anjuman-i Āthār wa Mafākhir-i Farhangī).Google Scholar
  13. Ṣadūghī Suhā, Manūchihr, Tārīkh-i Ḥukamā wa ʿUrafā-yi Mutiʾakhir (History of the Contemporary Ḥakīms and Gnostics), 2nd edition, n.d., (Tehran: Ḥikmat Publication).Google Scholar
  14. Shīrāzī, Ṣadr al-Dīn, Sharḥ Uṣūl al-Kāfī (Commentary on Uṣūl al-Kāfī), 4 volumes, 1366 Shamsī (Tehran: Muʾasasay-i Muṭāliʿāt wa Taḥqīqāt Farhangī).Google Scholar
  15. Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Muḥammad Hossein, Ṭarīq-i ʿIrfān (the Path to Mysticism), translated into Persian by Ṣādiq Ḥassanzādih, introduction by Ayatollah Ḥassan Ḥassanzādih Āmulī, 4th edition, 1390 (Qum: Ishrāq).Google Scholar
  16. Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Muḥammad Hossein, Maʿnawīyat-i Tashayuʿ (the Spirituality of Shīʿīsm), 1387a (Qum: Tashayuʿ).Google Scholar
  17. Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Muḥammad Hossein, Shīʿa: Majmūʿa Mudhākirāt bā Professor Henry Corbin (Shīʿīsm: the Collected Conversations with Professor Henry Corbin), Ḥādī Khusrushāhī (ed), 1387b (Qum: Būstān-i Kitāb).Google Scholar
  18. Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Muḥammad Hossein, Ḥayāt-i Mā Baʿd-i Mawt (Life after Death), ʿAlī al-Qaṣīr (ed), 1429 H/2008 (Karbala: al-ʿUtba al-Hosseiniyaht al-Muqaddasa).Google Scholar
  19. Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Muḥammad Hossein, Tafsīr al-Mīzān (al-Mīzān Exegesis), vol. 4, 3rd edition, 1394 shamsī/1974 (Beirut: Muʾasasat al-ʿĀlamī al-Maṭbūʿa).Google Scholar
  20. Zunūzī, Mullā ʿAbdullāh, Anwār-i Jalīyyah (the Manifest Lights), Seyyed Jalāl al-Dīn Ashtīyānī (ed), 1354 (Tehran: Tehran University Press).Google Scholar

Arabic Books

  1. Al-Aḥsāʾī, Aḥmad, Sharḥ al-Zīyārat al-Jāmiʿat al-Kabīrah (Commentary on the Grand Comprehensive Visitation), Vol. 1–4, 1420 H/1999 (Beirut, Dār al-Mufīd Publication).Google Scholar
  2. Nūrī, ʿAlī, Mafātīḥ al-Ghayb (Keys of the Unseen), (glosses on), 1363 shamsī (n.p.).Google Scholar
  3. Nūrī, ʿAlī, Asrār al-Āyāt (the Mysteries of Verses), (glosses on), 1385 shamsī (n.p.).Google Scholar
  4. Sabzivārī, Hādī, Sharḥ al-Asmā or Sharḥ al-Duʿāy al-Jawshan al-Kabīr (the Commentary on the Divine Names), Najaf Qulī Habībī (ed), 1372 shamsī (Tehran: Tehran University Press).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leila Chamankhah
    • 1
  1. 1.University of DaytonDaytonUSA

Personalised recommendations