Decisions, Costs, Funding to Protect Coastal Cities: Populations and Assets (Personal and Municipal/National)

  • Frederic R. Siegel
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Environmental Science book series (BRIEFSENVIRONMENTAL)


Decisions on where and what investments should be made to build defenses to protect people and assets in coastal cities from exposure to hazard events are generally based initially on a cost-benefit analysis. Secondly, decisions ideally consider which investment or investments will most benefit a city’s general citizenry and not an economically advantaged or politically influential segment of a population. A third consideration in decision-making is how much municipal/national funding is initially available and how much funding can be obtained by low cost loans from institutions such as the World Bank and regional development banks that serve most areas (e.g., the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, the African Development Bank, and the Inter-American Development Bank). In addition, many national agencies in developed countries award grants and offer technical assistance to less-developed and developing countries to support well-planned development projects. These can originate, for example, from the United States, the European Union, France, Germany, Japan, Norway, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and others. The United Nations Development Program can provide technical assistance in lieu of funding.


Costs coastal defenses Influences on investment decisions Cost determinants National differences 


  1. 1.
    Hillen MM, Jonkman SN, Kanning W, Kok M, Geldenhuys MA, Stive MJF (2010) Coastal defence cost estimates. Case study of the Netherlands, New Orleans and Vietnam, Communications on Hydraulic and Geotechnical Engineering, Delft Technical University, 87 pGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jonkman S, Hillen N, Marten M, Nicholls RJ, Kanning W, van Ledden M (2013) Costs of adapting coastal defenses to sea level rise—new estimates and their implicitons. J Coastal Res 29:1212–1226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mai CV, van Gelder PHAJM, Vrijling JK, Mai TC (2008) Risk analysis of coastal flood defences—a Vietnam case. In: 4th International Symposium on Flood Defence, Toronto, Canada, 8 pGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mai CV, van Gelder PHAJM, Vrijling JK (2010) Risk based design of coastal flood defences—a Vietnam case. In: Reliability, risk and safety: theory and applications. Taylor & Francis, London, pp 1125–1132Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederic R. Siegel
    • 1
  1. 1.George Washington UniversityWashington, DCUSA

Personalised recommendations