Advertisement

An Example of Coastal Cities Hazard Exposure and Economics

  • Frederic R. Siegel
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Environmental Science book series (BRIEFSENVIRONMENTAL)

Abstract

Coastal cities’ economics have developed in one or more than one sector depending on several factors. These include, but are not limited to, location and accessibility, climate, environment attractions for tourism and recreation, accessibility to organic and inorganic natural resources for internal use and export, or need to import resources. Populations in urban coastal centers continue to increase as global population grows and there is a great demographic change as rural citizens flock to cities. As previously noted, the 2018 global population of 7.6 billion citizens had 4.1 billion living in cities and 3.5 in rural areas. Projections indicate that in 2050, the global population will be 9.9 billion people. Cities will grow to 6.9 billion inhabitants from natural growth, from an influx of rural people, and in some cases from immigration. This leaves a population of 3 billion people in rural areas [1]. Rural citizens come for employment opportunities, for better schools for their children, and for access to better healthcare. Coastal cities are absorbing much of the global population growth, mainly in Asia, Africa, and to some degree in South America.

Keywords

Coastal cities hazard exposure economics Example 2007–2070 Example effect on GDP 2050, 2200 

References

  1. 1.
    World Population Data Sheet (2018) Population Reference Bureau, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nicholls RJ, Hanson S, Herweijer C, Patmore N, Hallegatte S, Corfee-Moriot J, Chateau J, Muir-Wood R (2007) Ranking of the world’s cities most exposed to coastal flooding today and in the future. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, 10 pp. https://idrc.info/fileadmin/user_upload/idrc/former
  3. 3.
    Hanson S, Nicholls R, Ranger N, Hallegatte S, Corfee-Morlot J, Herweijer C, Chateau J (2011) A global ranking of port cities with high exposure to climate extremes. Climatic Change 104:89–111. https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s10584-010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Union of Concerned Scientists (2018) New study finds 1 million Florida homes worth $351 billion will be at risk from tidal flooding. Washington, DC, 28 pGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hallegatte S, Green C, Nicholls RJ, Morlot JC (2013) Future flood losses in major coastal cities. Nat Climate Change 3(9):802–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Desmet K, Kopp RE, Kulp SA, Kristian, Oppenheimer M, Hansberg ER Strauss BH (2018) Evaluating the economic cost of coastal flooding. National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper No. 24918, Cambridge, MA, 34 p. www.princeton.edu/erossi/EECCF.pdf
  7. 7.
    Kopp RE, Horton RM, Little CM, Mitrovica JX, Oppenheimer M, Rasmussen DJ, Strauss RH, Tebaldi C (2014) Probabilistic 21st and 22nd century sea-level projections at a global network of tidal gauge sites. Earth’s Future 2:383–406. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC. https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014EF000239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    International Panel on Climate Change (2013) Fifth assessment report. In: Climate change 2013. The physical science basis. Summary for policy makers. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 29 p. http://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wgl/

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederic R. Siegel
    • 1
  1. 1.George Washington UniversityWashington, DCUSA

Personalised recommendations