An Example of Coastal Cities Hazard Exposure and Economics

  • Frederic R. Siegel
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Environmental Science book series (BRIEFSENVIRONMENTAL)


Coastal cities’ economics have developed in one or more than one sector depending on several factors. These include, but are not limited to, location and accessibility, climate, environment attractions for tourism and recreation, accessibility to organic and inorganic natural resources for internal use and export, or need to import resources. Populations in urban coastal centers continue to increase as global population grows and there is a great demographic change as rural citizens flock to cities. As previously noted, the 2018 global population of 7.6 billion citizens had 4.1 billion living in cities and 3.5 in rural areas. Projections indicate that in 2050, the global population will be 9.9 billion people. Cities will grow to 6.9 billion inhabitants from natural growth, from an influx of rural people, and in some cases from immigration. This leaves a population of 3 billion people in rural areas [1]. Rural citizens come for employment opportunities, for better schools for their children, and for access to better healthcare. Coastal cities are absorbing much of the global population growth, mainly in Asia, Africa, and to some degree in South America.


Coastal cities hazard exposure economics Example 2007–2070 Example effect on GDP 2050, 2200 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederic R. Siegel
    • 1
  1. 1.George Washington UniversityWashington, DCUSA

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