Advertisement

Physical Care: Lessening Impacts from Other Natural Hazards

  • Frederic R. Siegel
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Environmental Science book series (BRIEFSENVIRONMENTAL)

Abstract

Earthquakes happen by the thousands each year but only a small number annually release the seismic energy that can kill and injure people and damage and destroy structures and infrastructure. A regional recurrence interval for major earthquakes as well as the probable Richter scale magnitude can only be very roughly estimated (guesstimated?). For example, the United States Geological Survey gives probabilities of high magnitude earthquakes hitting the Los Angeles and San Francisco areas in 30 years. For Los Angeles, there is a 60% probability that there will be an earthquake of 6.7 (destructive) magnitude. For San Francisco, there is a 72% probability that there will be a 6.7 magnitude earthquake. Whatever the weakness in prediction and the inability to prevent an earthquake, locations must prepare so as to limit an earthquake impact on citizens and assets. The probabilities that greater magnitude earthquakes will hit the two California areas are given in Table 5.1. Other countries at risk of earthquakes in coastal cities make similar estimates. For example, 2012 data from Tokyo University Earthquake Research Institute gave a probability of 70% for a magnitude 7 earthquake impacting Tokyo in 4 years. It did not happen. A prediction of a 98% probability in 30 years, 2042, has 23 years to occur or not.

Keywords

Coastal city physical endemic hazards Locations Natural/human influenced Earthquake Extreme strorm/wind Subsidence Greenhouse gases loading Ocean warming Profile/effects 

References

  1. 1.
    U. S. Geological Survey. What is the probability that an earthquake will occur in the Los Angeles Area? In the San Francisco Bay Area? http://www.usgs.gov/faqs/what-probability-earthquake-will-occur-los-angeles-area-san-francisco-bay-area
  2. 2.
    Teshigawara M (2012) Appendix A: outline of earthquake provisions in the Japanese Building Codes. In: Preliminary Reconnaissance Report of the 2011 Tohoku Chica Taiheigo Oko Earthquake, Geotechnical, Geological, and Earthquake Engineering, vol 23. Springer, Tokyo, pp 421–446Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    California Building Standards Commission (2013) California existing building code, vol 1 and 2. California Building Standards Commission, Sacramento, 752pGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Siegel FR (2016) Mitigation of dangers from natural and anthropogenic hazards: prediction, prevention, preparedness. Springer Briefs in Environmental Sciences, 127pGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wilcox K (2015) New bridge unfolds in Japan. ASCE Magazine. http://www.asce.org/magazine/20150818-new-bridge-unfolds-in-japan/
  6. 6.
    FEMA (1993) Against the wind: protecting your home from hurricane wind damage, 247, ARC 5023, 6p. http://www.fema.gov/media.library-date/20130726-1505
  7. 7.
    FEMA (2010) P-804 Wind retrofit guide for residential buildings. http://www.fema.gov/media.library-date/20130726-175
  8. 8.
    Xu Y-S, Shen S-L, Ren D-J, Wu H-N (2016) Analysis of factors in land subsidence in Shanghai: a view based on strategic environmental assessment. Sustainability 8:573–584.  https://doi.org/10.3390/su8060573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Siegel FR (2018) Cities and mega-cities. Problems and solution strategies. Springer Briefs in Geography, New York, 117pGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Caen M (2018) New project aims to reinforce Millennium Tower. CBS, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Osathanon P (2015) Action required to stop sinking the capital. The Nation, Thailand PortalGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lorphensri O, Ladawadee A, Dhammasarn S (2011) Review of groundwater management and land subsidence in Bangkok, Thailand. In: Taniguchi M (ed) Groundwater and subsurface environments, part 2, chap 7. Springer, Tokyo, pp 127–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Aobpaet A, Cuenca MC, Hooper A, Trisirisatayawong I (2013) INSAR time-series analysis of land subsidence in Bangkok, Thailand. Int J Remote Sens 34:2969–2982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ishitsuka K, Fukushima Y, Tsuji T, Yamada Y, Matsuoka T, Giao PH (2014) Natural surface rebound of the Bangkok plain and aqua characterization by persistent scatter interferometry. Geochemistry, Geophysics. Geosystems 15:965–974.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2013GC005154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tran Ngoc TD, Perset M, Strady E, Phan TSH, Vachaud G, Quertamp F, Gratiot N (2016) Ho Chi Minh City growing with water-related challenges. In: Water, megacities and global change, 27p. http://www.eaumega.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/HCMC-MonographyEN.df
  16. 16.
    Nguyen QT (2016) Therein causes land subsidence in Ho Chi Minh City. Procedia Eng 142:334–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wikipedia. List of tallest buildings in Vietnam. http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_tallest_bilngs_in_Vietnam. Accessed 2018
  18. 18.
    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2013) Fifth assessment report. In: Climate change 2013. The physical science basis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 215–315, 29p. http://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wgl/
  19. 19.
    Cheng L, Trenberth EE, Fasullo J, Abraham TP, Boyer K, Zhu J (2017) Taking the pulse of the planet. EOS, 98. https://www.eos.org/opinions/taking-the-pulse-of-the-planet
  20. 20.
    Cheng L, Abraham J, Hausfather Z, Trenberth KE (2019) How fast are the oceans warming? Science 363:128–129.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aav7619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gray S (2016) Melbourne’s desalination plant is just one part of rough-proofing water supply. The Conversation, 3pGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Radcliffe JC (2015) Water recycling in Australia – during and after the drought. Environ Sci Water Res Technol 1:554–562. http://www.xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=CSEW00048CCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Morgan R (2015) ‘Drought-proofing’ Perth: the long view of Western Australia water. The Conversation. http://www.theconversation.com/drought-proofing-perth-the-long-view
  24. 24.
    Wikipedia (2018) Cape Town water crisis. http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cape_Town_water_crisis
  25. 25.
    Oliver ECJ, Donat MG, Burrows MT, Moore PJ, Smale DA, Alexander LV, Benthuysen JA, Feng M, Gupta AS, Hobday AJ, Holbrook NJ, Perkins-Kirkpatrick SE, Scannell HA, Straub SC, Wernberg T (2018) Longer and more frequent marine heatwaves over the past century. Nat Commun 9:1324–1336.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-03732-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Smale DA, Wernberg T, Oliver EJC, Thomsen MS, Harvey BP Straub SC, Burrows MT, Alexander LV, Benthuysen JA, Donat MG, Feng M, Hobday AJ, Holbrook NJ, Perkins-Kirkpatrick SE, Scannell HA, Gupta AS, Payne B, Moore PJ (2019) Marine heatwaves threaten global biodiversity and the provision of ecosystem services. Nat Clim Chang, Letter.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-019-0412-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederic R. Siegel
    • 1
  1. 1.George Washington UniversityWashington, DCUSA

Personalised recommendations