There are four choices that coastal cities have as threats from global warming, climate change, and population growth put their citizens at risk. The risks are of injury or death, loss, or diminished availability of life-sustaining natural resources, loss of citizens’ property and commercial-industrial operations vulnerable to damage and destruction and employment they offer, and disruption or destruction of cities’ infrastructure. The viable choices are to build defenses, opt for a managed retreat, and adaptation to mitigate or eliminate risk and vulnerability. A fourth choice would be to maintain the status quo but this is not realistically viable either politically, sociologically, or economically.
KeywordsCoastal city hazard mitigation Build defenses Managed retreat Adaptation principles
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