• Frederic R. Siegel
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Environmental Science book series (BRIEFSENVIRONMENTAL)


There are four choices that coastal cities have as threats from global warming, climate change, and population growth put their citizens at risk. The risks are of injury or death, loss, or diminished availability of life-sustaining natural resources, loss of citizens’ property and commercial-industrial operations vulnerable to damage and destruction and employment they offer, and disruption or destruction of cities’ infrastructure. The viable choices are to build defenses, opt for a managed retreat, and adaptation to mitigate or eliminate risk and vulnerability. A fourth choice would be to maintain the status quo but this is not realistically viable either politically, sociologically, or economically.


Coastal city hazard mitigation Build defenses Managed retreat Adaptation principles 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederic R. Siegel
    • 1
  1. 1.George Washington UniversityWashington, DCUSA

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