Advertisement

Discussion and Implications

  • Barbara Marina Covarrubias Venegas
Chapter
Part of the Contributions to Management Science book series (MANAGEMENT SC.)

Abstract

The present study contributes to this field of research by investigating the impact of age on middle-agers’ careers in the highly dynamic and changing context of the Austrian Banking industry. Although it was found that positive age stereotypes prevail in the Austrian banking industry up to the age of 50 years, above the age of 50 contextual factors re-inforce negative stereotypes. Although middle-agers refer to themselves as being in the prime labour age, there is a clear discrepancy between “Talk” and “Action”, shown by implicit career timetables in the Austrian Banking industry. Moreover, gendered ageism was evident for middle-aged women, particularly through implicit career timetables and the prevalent traditional career concepts.

Overall, the findings of this study support the call for a more age-conscious Human Resource Management, a change in attitudes towards ageing as well as improvement of managers’ and supervisors’ knowledge level in age-related issues, better age-adjusted and flexible working environments, and finally career development for all age groups.

The final section of this chapter addresses the limitations of this study and measures undertaken to manage these.

Concluding, the findings of the present study point to a number of recommendations for future research on the interplay between age and careers in today’s organisations.

References

  1. Appelbaum, S. H., Wenger, R., Pachon Buitrago, C., & Kaur, R. (2016). The effects of old-age stereotypes on organizational productivity (part three). Industrial and Commercial Training, 48(4), 181–188.  https://doi.org/10.1108/ICT-02-2015-0015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnold, R. (2013). Betriebliche Weiterbildung. Statistik Austria.Google Scholar
  3. Arrowsmith, J., & Mcgoldrick, A. E. (1996). HRM service practices: Flexibility, quality and employee strategy. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 7(3), 46–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arthur, M. B. (2014). The boundaryless career at 20: Where do we stand, and where can we go? Career Development International, 19, 627–640.  https://doi.org/10.1108/CDI-05-2014-0068 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bal, A. C., Reiss, A. E. B., Rudolph, C. W., & Baltes, B. B. (2011). Examining positive and negative perceptions of older workers: A meta-analysis. Journals of Gerontology – Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 66B(6), 687–698.  https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbr056 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barak, B., & Schiffman, L. G. (1981). Cognitive age: A nonchronological age variable. NA – Advances in Consumer Research, 8, 602–606. Retrieved from http://acrwebsite.org/volumes/5867/volumes/v08/NA-08
  7. Baruch, Y. (2004). Transforming careers: From linear to multidirectional career paths: Organizational and individual perspectives. Career Development International, 9(1), 58–73.  https://doi.org/10.1108/13620430410518147 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baruch, Y. (2006). Career development in organizations and beyond: Balancing traditional and contemporary viewpoints. Human Resource Management Review, 16, 125–138.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2006.03.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bengtsson, T., & Scott, K. (2013). World population in historical perspective. In J. Field, R. J. Burke, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of aging, work and society (pp. 23–40). Washington, DC: SAGE.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bieling, G. (2010). In: R. Stock-Homburg & J. Wieseke (Eds.), Age Inclusion. Erfolgsauswirkungen des Umgangs mit Mitarbeitern unterschiedlicher Altersgruppen in Unternehmen. Wiesbaden: GABLER Research.Google Scholar
  11. Boehm, S. A., Kunze, F., & Bruch, H. (2014). Spotlight on age-diversity climate: The impact of age-inclusive HR practices on firm-level outcomes. Personnel Psychology, 67, 667–704.  https://doi.org/10.1111/peps.12047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boehm, S. A., Schröder, H. S., & Kunze, F. (2013). Comparative age management: Theoretical perspectives and practical implications. In J. Field, R. J. Burke, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of aging, work and society (pp. 211–237). London: SAGE.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bossaert, D., Demmke, C., & Moilanen, T. (2012). The impact of demographic change and its challenges for the workforce in the European public sectors. Three priority areas to invest in future HRM. EIPA Working Papers No. 2012/W/01.Google Scholar
  14. Brauer, K. (2010). Ageism: Fakt oder Fiktion? In K. Brauer & W. Clemens (Eds.), Zu alt? “Ageism” und Altersdiskriminierung auf Arbeitsmärkten (pp. 10–40). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-531-91941-6_2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brewer, M. B., & Kramer, R. M. (1985). The psychology of intergroup attitudes and behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 36, 219–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Briscoe, J. P., & Hall, D. T. (2006). The interplay of boundaryless and protean careers: Combinations and implications. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69(1), 4–18.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2005.09.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Briscoe, J. P., Hall, D. T., & Frautschy DeMuth, R. L. (2006). Protean and boundaryless careers: An empirical exploration. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69(1), 30–47.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2005.09.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brunsson, N. (1994). The organization of hypocrisy. Talk, decisions and actions in organizations. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  19. Buchholz, L. (2004). Wissenschaftskarrieren an österreichischen Universitäten. In E. M. Appelt (Ed.), Karrierenschere. Geschlechterverhältnisse im österreichischen Wissenschaftsbetrieb (Band 1, pp. 71–93). Wien: LIT Verlag WienGoogle Scholar
  20. Buyken, M., Klehe, U. C., Zikic, J., & van Vianen, A. E. M. (2015). Merits and challenges of career adaptability as a tool towards sustainable careers. In Handbook of research on sustainable careers (pp. 35–49). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carstensen, L. L. (1995). Evidence for a life-span theory of socioemotional selectivity. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4(5), 151–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Carstensen, L. L., & Hartel, C. R. (Eds.). (2006). When I’m 64. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  23. Chiesa, R., Toderi, S., Dordoni, P., Henkens, K., Fiabane, E. M., & Setti, I. (2016). Older workers: Stereotypes and occupational self-efficacy. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 31(7), 1152–1166.  https://doi.org/10.1108/JMP-11-2015-0390 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chiu, W. C. K., Chan, A. W., Snape, E., & Redman, T. (2001). Age stereotypes and discriminatory attitudes towards older workers: An East–West comparison. Human Relations; Studies Towards the Integration of the Social Sciences, 54(5), 629–661.Google Scholar
  25. Chrobot-Mason, D., Ruderman, M. N., Weber, T. J., Ohlott, P. J., & Dalton, M. A. (2007). Illuminating a cross-cultural leadership challenge: When identity groups collide. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(11), 2011–2036.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09585190701639778 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Clarke, M. (2013). The organizational career: Not dead but in need of redefinition. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(4), 684–703.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2012.697475 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cleveland, J., & Hanscom, M. (2017). What is old at work? Moving past chronological age. In E. Parry & J. McCarthy (Eds.), The Palgrave handbook of age diversity and work (pp. 17–46). London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cuddy, A. J. C., & Fiske, S. T. (2002). Doddering but Dear: Process, content, and function in stereotyping of older persons. In T. D. Nelson (Ed.), Ageism: Stereotyping and prejudice against older persons (pp. 3–26). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  29. de Lange, A. H., Van Yperen, N. W., Van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., & Bal, P. M. (2010). Dominant achievement goals of older workers and their relationship with motivation-related outcomes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 77(1), 118–125.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2010.02.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Defilippi, R., & Arthur, M. B. (1994). The boundaryless career: A competency-based perspective. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15, 307–324. https://doi.org/papers://BA75DBD3-74D3-4A2D-AAAC-910414082C6C/Paper/p11629
  31. Dimitrios, B., & Koustelios, A. (2013). Organizational culture of Greek Banking Institutions: A case study. International Journal of Human Resource Management and Research, 3(2), 95–104.Google Scholar
  32. Dovidio, J. F., Hewstone, M., Glick, P., & Esses, V. M. (2010). Prejudice, stereotyping and discrimination: Theoretical and empirical overview. In J. F. Dovidio, M. Hewstone, P. Glick, & V. M. Esses (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of prejudice, stereotyping and discrimination (pp. 2–28). Thousand Oaks: SAGE.Google Scholar
  33. Duncan, C., & Loretto, W. (2004). Never the right age? Gender and age-based discrimination in employment. Gend Work Organ, 11(1), 95–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Finkelstein, L. M., Burke, M. J., & Raju, M. S. (1995). Age discrimination in simulated employment contexts: An integrative analysis. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 80(6), 652–663.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.80.6.652 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Finkelstein, L. M., Ryan, K. M., & King, E. B. (2013, November). What do the young (old) people think of me? Content and accuracy of age-based metastereotypes. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 22, 633–657.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2012.673279 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Froehlich, D. (2015). Old and out? Age, employability and the role of learning. Maastricht: Universitaire Pers Maastricht.Google Scholar
  37. Fuchs, M. (2015). Fakten zu Österreich und seinen Banken. Wien. Retrieved from www.oenb.at
  38. Gerber, M., Wittekind, A., Grote, G., & Staffelbach, B. (2009). Exploring types of career orientation: A latent class analysis approach. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75(3), 303–318.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2009.04.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Giberson, T. R., Resick, C. J., & Dickson, M. W. (2005). Embedding leader characteristics: An examination of homogeneity of personality and values in organizations. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(5), 1002–1010.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.90.5.1002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Glover, I., & Branine, M. (Eds.). (2001). Ageism in work and employment. Ashgate: Burlington. Retrieved from http://lib.ugent.be/catalog/rug01:002093471
  41. Goudreau, J. (2010). ForbesWoman And TheBump.Com survey results. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/2010/03/01/family-career-working-mother-forbes-woman-time-survey.html
  42. Gratton, L., & Ghoshal, S. (2003). Managing personal human capital: New ethos for the “volunteer” employee. European Management Journal, 21(1), 1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0263-2373(02)00149-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Guest, G., Bunce, A., & Johnson, L. (2006). How many interviews are enough? An experiment with data saturation and variability. Family Health International, 18(1), 59–82.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1525822X05279903 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hales, S., & Riach, K. (2017). From age diversity to embedded ageing: Exploring and addressing aged assumptions in organisational practices. In E. Parry & J. McCarthy (Eds.), The Palgrave handbook of age diversity and work (pp. 111–131). London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.  https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-46781-2_6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hall, D. T. (2004). The protean career: A quarter-century journey. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65(1), 1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2003.10.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hall, D. T., & Mirvis, P. H. (1995). The new career contract: Developing the whole person at midlife and beyond. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 47(3), 269–289.  https://doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.1995.0004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Harwood, J., & Giles, H. (1993). Creating intergenerational distance: Language, communication and middle-age. Language Sciences, 15(1), 15–38.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0388-0001(93)90003-B CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Heckhausen, J., Dixon, R. A., & Baltes, P. B. (1989). Gains and losses in development throughout adulthood as perceived by different adult age groups. Developmental Psychology, 25(1), 109–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hess, N., Jepsen, D. M., & Dries, N. (2012). Career and employer change in the age of the “boundaryless” career. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 81(2), 280–288.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2011.10.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Huang, X., Rode, J. C., & Schroeder, R. G. (2011). Organizational structure and continuous improvement and learning: Moderating effects of cultural endorsement of participative leadership. Journal of International Business Studies, 42(9), 1103–1120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Huffman, A., Culbertson, S. S., Henning, J. B., & Goh, A. (2013). Work-family conflict across the lifespan. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 28(7/8), 761–780.  https://doi.org/10.1108/JMP-07-2013-0220 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hyll, M. (2014). Karriereformen im Wandel. Herausforderungen für Individuen und Organisationen. Mering: Rainer Hampp Verlag.Google Scholar
  53. Ilmarinen, J. (2006). The ageing workforce – challenges for occupational health. Occupational Medicine (Oxford, England), 56(6), 362–364.  https://doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kql046 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Inkson, K., & Arthur, M. B. (2001). How to be a successful career capitalist. Organizational Dynamics, 30(1), 48–61.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1043986214541607 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jyrkinen, M., & McKie, L. (2012). Gender, age and ageism: Experiences of women managers in Finland and Scotland. Work, Employment & Society, 26(1), 61–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kaindl, M., & Schipfer, R. K. (2016). Familien in Zahlen 2016. Statistische Informationen zu Familien in Österreich. Wien. Retrieved from http://www.oif.ac.at/fileadmin/OEIF/FiZ/fiz_2016.pdf
  57. Kaiser, S., Hochfeld, K., Gertje, E., & Schraudner, M. (2012). Unternehmenskulturen verändern – Karrierebrüche vermeiden. Stuttgart: Fraunhofer Verlag.Google Scholar
  58. Karpinska, K., Henkens, K., & Schippers, J. (2013). Retention of older workers: Impact of managers’ age norms and stereotypes. European Sociological Review, 29(6), 1323–1335.  https://doi.org/10.1093/esr/jct017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kauppinen, V.-M., Kaivo-oja, J., & Aho, S. (2011). Building the future of European life-long learning strategies and policies: Defining critical key drivers of lifelong learning in Europe. Turku.Google Scholar
  60. Kite, M. E., Stockdale, G. D., Bernard, E., Whitley, J., & Johnson, B. T. (2005). Attitudes toward younger and older adults: An updated meta-analytic review. Journal of Social Issues, 61(2), 241–266.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.2005.00404.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kooij, D. T. A. M., de Lange, A. H., Jansen, P. G. W., & Dikkers, J. S. E. (2013). Beyond chronological age. Examining perceived future time and subjective health as age-related mediators in relation to work-related motivations and well-being. Work & Stress, 27(1), 88–105.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2013.769328 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kornadt, A. E., Meissner, F., & Rothermund, K. (2016). Implicit and explicit age stereotypes for specific life domains across the life span: Distinct patterns and age group differences. Experimental Aging Research, 42(2), 195–211.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0361073X.2016.1132899 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kornadt, A. E., Voss, P., & Rothermund, K. (2017). Age stereotypes and self-views revisited: Patterns of internalization and projection processes across the life span. The Journals of Gerontology Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 72(4), 582–592.  https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbv099 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lawrence, B. S., Hall, D. T., & Arthur, M. B. (2015). Sustainable careers then and now. In A. De Vos & B. I. J. M. van der Heijden (Eds.), Handbook of sustainable careers (pp. 432–450). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Loretto, W., Duncan, C., & White, P. J. (2000). Ageism and employment: Controversies, ambiguities and younger people’s perceptions. Ageing and Society, 20(3), 279–302.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X00007741 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lub, X. D., Bal, P. M., Blomme, R. J., & Schalk, R. (2015, February). One job, one deal…or not: Do generations respond differently to psychological contract fulfillment? International Journal of Human Resource Management, 5192, 1–28.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2015.1035304 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lucas, R. (1995). Some age-related issues in hotel and catering employment. Service Industries Journal, 15(2), 234–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lyons, S. T., Schweitzer, L., Ng, E. S. W., & Kuron, L. K. J. (2012). Comparing apples to apples. A qualitative investigation of career mobility patterns across four generations. Career Development International, 17(4), 333–357.  https://doi.org/10.1108/13620431211255824 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Marcus, J., & Fritzsche, B. A. (2014). One size doesn’t fit all: Toward a theory on the intersectional salience of ageism at work. Organizational Psychology Review, 5(2), 168–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Martens, H., Manshoven, J., Lambrechts, F., & Vandenberk, A. (2006). Silver processes and instruments. Towards an age-friendly HR management. In T. S. Rocco & J. G. L. Thijssen (Eds.), Older workers, new directions. Employment and development in an ageing labor market (pp. 82–92). Miami: Center for Labor Research and Studies, Florida International University.Google Scholar
  71. McCarthy, J., Heraty, N., Cross, C., & Cleveland, J. N. (2014). Who is considered an “older worker”? Extending our conceptualisation of “older” from an organisational decision maker perspective. Human Resource Management Journal, 24(4), 374–393.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1748-8583.12041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. McDonald, P., Brown, K., & Bradley, L. (2005). Have traditional career paths given way to protean ones? Evidence from senior managers in the Australian public sector. Career Development International, 10(2), 109–129.  https://doi.org/10.1108/13620430510588310 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. McDonald, K. S., & Hite, L. M. (2008). The next generation of career success: Implications for HRD. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 10(1), 86–103.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1523422307310116 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mooij, J. (2004). Corporate culture of Central Banks: Lessons from the past. DNB Working Paper Series No. 006/2004. Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  75. Morris, T. (2007). Internal and external sources of organizational change: Corporate form and the banking industry. The Sociological Quarterly, 48(1), 119–140.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.2007.00073.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Murphy, C., & Cross, C. (2017). Gender, age, and labour market experiences. In E. Parry & J. McCarthy (Eds.), The Palgrave handbook of age diversity and work (pp. 561–582). London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.  https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-46781-2_23 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ng, E. S. W., & Law, A. (2014). Keeping up! Older workers’ adaptation in the workplace after age 55. Canadian Journal on Aging, 33(December 2013), 1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0714980813000639 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Noack, C. M. G. (2009). Age climate. Age stereotypes in organizations and older workers. Jacobs University.Google Scholar
  79. North-Samardzic, A., & Taksa, L. (2011). The impact of gender culture on women’s career trajectories: An Australian case study. Equality Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 30(3), 196–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. OECD. (2003). Family formation: Does more work lead to fewer births? In Babies and Bosses – Reconciling work and family life (Volume 2): Austria, Ireland and Japan (Vol. 2, pp. 97–230). OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  81. OECD. (2006). Thematic review of early childhood education and care policy. Country note for Austria. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/austria/36472878.pdf
  82. OECD. (2016). Policy brief: Parental leave: Where are the fathers? Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/policy-briefs/parental-leave-where-are-the-fathers.pdf
  83. OeNB. (2015). Entwicklung der Beschäftigten (nach Köpfen) im österreichischen Bankwesen – sektorale Darstellung. Retrieved February 20, 2016, from https://www.oenb.at/isaweb/report.do?lang=DE&report=3.26
  84. Parry, E., & McCarthy, J. (2017). Introduction. In E. Parry & J. McCarthy (Eds.), The Palgrave handbook of age diversity and work (pp. 1–14). London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.  https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-46781-2_1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pascall, G., Parker, S., & Evetts, J. (2000). Women in banking careers – A science of muddling through? Journal of Gender Studies, 9(1), 63–73.  https://doi.org/10.1080/095892300102461 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pensionsversicherungsanstalt. (2017). Alterspension. Retrieved March 1, 2017, from http://www.pensionsversicherung.at/cdscontent/load?contentid=10008.636756&version=1483007248
  87. Perry, E. L., & Finkelstein, L. M. (1999). Toward a broader view of age discrimination in employment-related decisions: A joint consideration of organizational factors and cognitive processes. Human Resource Management Review, 9(1), 21–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pew Research Center. (2010). Millenials: A portrait of generation next. Google Scholar
  89. Posthuma, R. A., & Campion, M. (2009). Age stereotypes in the workplace: Common stereotypes, moderators, and future research directions. Journal of Management, 35(1), 158–188.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206308318617 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Posthuma, R. A., Wagstaff, M. F., & Campion, M. A. (2012). Age stereotypes and workplace age discrimination. A framework for future research. In J. W. Hedge & W. C. Borman (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of work and aging (pp. 298–312). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  91. Potočnik, K. (2017). Healthy ageing and well-being at work. In E. Parry & J. McCarthy (Eds.), The Palgrave handbook of age diversity and work (pp. 171–193). London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.  https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-46781-2_8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Raval, S. (2014). Organizational cultures: Hospitality v/s banking. International Journal of Conceptions on Management and Social Sciences, 2(2), 48–51.Google Scholar
  93. Reitman, F., & Schneer, J. A. (2003). The promised path: A longitudinal study of managerial careers. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(1), 60–75.  https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940310459592 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Remery, C., Henkens, K., Schippers, J., & Ekamper, P. (2003). Managing an ageing workforce and a tight labour market: Views held by Dutch employers. Population Research and Policy Review, 22, 21–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Richeson, J. A., & Shelton, J. N. (2006). A social psychological perspective on the stigmatization of older adults. In L. L. Carstensen & C. R. Hartel (Eds.), When I’m 64 (pp. 174–208). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  96. Rodriguez, A. (2012). Change management in the banking industry: Lessons learned. Organization Development Journal, 30(3), 9–16.Google Scholar
  97. Schalk, R., Van Veldhoven, M., De, A. H., Bertrand, F., Claes, R., Crego, A., & Dorenbosch, L. (2010). Moving European research on work and ageing forward: Overview and agenda. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 19(1), 76–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Schruijer, S. G. (2006). Age stereotyping among managers. In T. S. Rocco & J. G. L. Thijssen (Eds.), Older workers, new directions. Employment and development in an ageing labor market (pp. 146–157). Miami: Center for Labor Research and Studies, Florida International University.Google Scholar
  99. Sealy, R. (2010). Changing perceptions of meritocracy in senior women’s careers. Gender in Management, 25(3), 184–197.  https://doi.org/10.1108/17542411011036392 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Segers, J., Inceoglu, I., Vloeberghs, D., Bartram, D., & Henderickx, E. (2008). Protean and boundaryless careers: A study on potential motivators. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73(2), 212–230.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2008.05.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Siyanova-Chanturia, A., Warren, P., Pesciarelli, F., & Cacciari, C. (2015, September). Gender stereotypes across the ages: On-line processing in school-age children, young and older adults. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1–13.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01388 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Statistics Austria. (2016). Births and marriages reflecting changes in Austrian society. Retrieved February 16, 2016, from http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Marriages_and_births_in_Austria
  103. Sterns, H. L., & Miklos, S. M. (1995). The aging worker in a changing environment: Organizational and individual issues. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 47, 248–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Stone, D. L., & Tetrick, L. (2013). Understanding and facilitating age diversity in organizations. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 28(7/8), 725–728.  https://doi.org/10.1108/JMP-07-2013-0226 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Sullivan, S. E., & Baruch, Y. (2009). Advances in career theory and research: A critical review and agenda for future exploration. Journal of Management, 35(6), 1542–1571.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206309350082 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Super, D. E. (1980). A life-span, life-space approach to career development. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 16(3), 282–298.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0001-8791(80)90056-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Tartakovsky, E., & Cohen, E. (2014). Values in the bank: Value preferences of bank frontline workers and branch managers. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 23(5), 769–782.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2013.794933 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Thomas, A., & Lackner, S. (2013). Beruflich in Österreich. Trainings programm für Manager, Fach- und Führungskräft. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.Google Scholar
  109. Van Dalen, H. P., Henkens, K., & Schippers, J. (2010). How do employers cope with an ageing workforce? Demographic Research, 22, 1015–1036.  https://doi.org/10.4054/DemRes.2010.22.32 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., de Lange, A. H., Demerouti, E., & Van der Heijde, C. M. (2009). Age effects on the employability–career success relationship. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74(2), 156–164.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2008.12.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., & De Vos, A. (2015). Sustainable careers: Introductory chapter. In A. De Vos & B. I. J. M. Van der Heijden (Eds.), Handbook of research on sustainable careers (pp. 1–19). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  112. van Ours, J. C., & Stoeldraijer, L. (2010). Age, wage and productivity. Discussion Paper Series No. 4765. Bonn. Retrieved from http://ftp.iza.org/dp4765.pdf
  113. Voelpel, S. C., Sauer, A., & Biemann, T. (2012). Career planning for mid- and late-career workers. In J. W. Hedge & W. C. Borman (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of work and aging (pp. 503–519). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  114. Walker, A. (2005). The emergence of age management in Europe. International Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 10(1), 685–697.Google Scholar
  115. Weiss, D., & Lang, F. R. (2012). “They” are old but “I” feel younger: Age-group dissociation as a self-protective strategy in old age. Psychology and Aging, 27(1), 153–163.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024887 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Yin, R. K. (2011). Qualitative research from start to finish. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barbara Marina Covarrubias Venegas
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ManagementUniversity of Applied Sciences for Management & CommunicationViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations