Advertisement

Post-traumatic Headache

  • Ajal M. DaveEmail author
  • Jay C. Erickson
  • Brett J. Theeler
Chapter

Abstract

Post-traumatic headaches (PTHAs) are a common occurrence following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), and while most PTHAs resolve, a proportion of patients develop chronic headache disorders. The exact mechanism(s) by which PTHAs develop are unknown, but herein we review some of the current pathophysiologic hypotheses. History and physical examination are important to rule out potentially dangerous secondary conditions, determine treatment approach, and evaluate for the need for further workup or neuroimaging. Treatment of PTHA requires phenotyping of the PTHA using criteria for primary headache disorders, as most PTHAs meet criteria for primary headache disorders and are usually migraine or tension-type headaches. The therapeutic approach to PTHA requires optimizing pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic management of each patient’s head and neck pain as well as treatment of associated comorbidities.

Keywords

Post-traumatic headache, PTHA, CPTHA, Primary headache, Secondary headache, TBI, Neurogenic inflammation 

Notes

Disclaimer

The identification of specific products or scientific instrumentation is considered an integral part of the scientific endeavor and does not constitute endorsement or implied endorsement on the part of the author, the United States Department of Defense, or any component agency of the US Government. The views expressed in this chapter are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy of the US Departments of the Army, Navy, or Air Force, the US Department of Defense, or the US Government.

References

  1. 1.
    Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society (IHS). The international classification of headache disorders, 3rd edition (beta version). Cephalalgia Int J Headache. 2013;33(9):629–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    O’Neil ME, Carlson K, Storzbach D, Brenner L, Freeman M, Quiñones A, et al. Complications of mild traumatic brain injury in veterans and military personnel: a systematic review [Internet]. Washington (DC): Department of Veterans Affairs (US); 2013. (VA Evidence-based Synthesis Program Reports). Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK189785/.
  3. 3.
    Monteith TS, Borsook D. Insights and advances in post-traumatic headache: research considerations. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2014;14(2):428.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Russo A, D’Onofrio F, Conte F, Petretta V, Tedeschi G, Tessitore A. Post-traumatic headaches: a clinical overview. Neurol Sci. 2014;35:153–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brown AW, Watanabe TK, Hoffman JM, Bell KR, Lucas S, Dikmen S. Headache after traumatic brain injury: a National Survey of clinical practices and treatment approaches. PM&R. 2015;7(1):3–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lucas S. Characterization and management of headache after mild traumatic brain injury. In: Kobeissy FH, editor. Brain neurotrauma: molecular, neuropsychological, and rehabilitation aspects [Internet]. Boca Raton: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; 2015.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Theeler B, Lucas S, Riechers RG, Ruff RL. Post-traumatic headaches in civilians and military personnel: a comparative, clinical review. Headache. 2013;53(6):881–900.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Theeler BJ, Flynn FG, Erickson JC. Chronic daily headache in U.S. soldiers after concussion. Headache. 2012;52(5):732–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hoffman JM, Lucas S, Dikmen S, Braden CA, Brown AW, Brunner R, et al. Natural history of headache after traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2011;28(9):1719–25.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Evans RW. Post-traumatic headaches. Neurol Clin. 2004;22(1):237–49, viiiPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Formisano R, Bivona U, Catani S, D’Ippolito M, Buzzi MG. Post-traumatic headache: facts and doubts. J Headache Pain. 2009;10(3):145–52.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lenaerts ME. Post-traumatic headache: from classification challenges to biological underpinnings. Cephalalgia Int J Headache. 2008;28(Suppl 1):12–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Defrin R. Chronic post-traumatic headache: clinical findings and possible mechanisms. J Man Manip Ther. 2014;22(1):36–44.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    DiTommaso C, Hoffman JM, Lucas S, Dikmen S, Temkin N, Bell KR. Medication usage patterns for headache treatment after mild traumatic brain injury. Headache. 2014;54(3):511–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Benromano T, Defrin R, Ahn AH, Zhao J, Pick CG, Levy D. Mild closed head injury promotes a selective trigeminal hypernociception: implications for the acute emergence of post-traumatic headache. Eur J Pain Lond Engl. 2015;19(5):621–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kjeldgaard D, Forchhammer HB, Teasdale TW, Jensen RH. Cognitive behavioural treatment for the chronic post-traumatic headache patient: a randomized controlled trial. J Headache Pain. 2014;15(1):81.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mihalik JP, Register-Mihalik J, Kerr ZY, Marshall SW, McCrea MC, Guskiewicz KM. Recovery of posttraumatic migraine characteristics in patients after mild traumatic brain injury. Am J Sports Med. 2013;41(7):1490–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Seifert TD. Sports concussion and associated post-traumatic headache. Headache. 2013;53(5):726–36.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Elahi F, Reddy C. Neuromodulation of the great auricular nerve for persistent post-traumatic headache. Pain Physician. 2014;17(4):E531–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kontos AP, Elbin RJ, Lau B, Simensky S, Freund B, French J, et al. Posttraumatic migraine as a predictor of recovery and cognitive impairment after sport-related concussion. Am J Sports Med. 2013;41(7):1497–504.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Evans RW. Persistent post-traumatic headache, Postconcussion syndrome, and whiplash injuries: the evidence for a non-traumatic basis with an historical review. Headache J Head Face Pain. 2010;50(4):716–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Michaleff ZA, Maher CG, Lin C-WC, Rebbeck T, Jull G, Latimer J, et al. Comprehensive physiotherapy exercise programme or advice for chronic whiplash (PROMISE): a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. Lancet Lond Engl. 2014;384(9938):133–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Defrin R, Riabinin M, Feingold Y, Schreiber S, Pick CG. Deficient pain modulatory systems in patients with mild traumatic brain and chronic post-traumatic headache: implications for its mechanism. J Neurotrauma. 2015;32(1):28–37.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Solomon S, Director Emeritus, Headache Center, Montefiore Medical Center, and Professor of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Chronic post-traumatic headache—understanding the complexities and treatment options. US Neurol. 2010;6(1):78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Goryunova AV. Post-traumatic headache in children. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2011;41(3):283–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pinchefsky E, Dubrovsky AS, Friedman D, Shevell M. Part I--evaluation of pediatric post-traumatic headaches. Pediatr Neurol. 2015;52(3):263–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kuczynski A, Crawford S, Bodell L, Dewey D, Barlow KM. Characteristics of post-traumatic headaches in children following mild traumatic brain injury and their response to treatment: a prospective cohort. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2013;55(7):636–41.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mickeviciene D, Schrader H, Obelieniene D, Surkiene D, Kunickas R, Stovner LJ, et al. A controlled prospective inception cohort study on the post-concussion syndrome outside the medicolegal context. Eur J Neurol. 2004;11(6):411–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Faux S, Sheedy J. A prospective controlled study in the prevalence of posttraumatic headache following mild traumatic brain injury. Pain Med Malden Mass. 2008;9(8):1001–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Carroll LJ, Cassidy JD, Peloso PM, Borg J, von Holst H, Holm L, et al. Prognosis for mild traumatic brain injury: results of the WHO collaborating Centre task force on mild traumatic brain injury. J Rehabil Med. 2004;36(43 Suppl):84–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rosenthal JF, Erickson JC. Post-traumatic stress disorder in U.S. soldiers with post-traumatic headache. Headache. 2013;53(10):1564–72.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ramchand R, Schell TL, Karney BR, Osilla KC, Burns RM, Caldarone LB. Disparate prevalence estimates of PTSD among service members who served in Iraq and Afghanistan: possible explanations. J Trauma Stress. 2010;23(1):59–68.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fischer H. A guide to US military casualty statistics: operation freedom’s sentinel, operation inherent resolve, operation new dawn, operation Iraqi freedom, and operation enduring freedom. Congr Res Serv. 2015;7:5700.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Committee on the Assessment of the Readjustment Needs of Military Personnel, Veterans, and Their Families, Board on the Health of Select Populations, Institute of Medicine. Returning home from Iraq and Afghanistan: assessment of readjustment needs of veterans, service members, and their families [Internet]. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2013. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK206864/.
  35. 35.
    Bartsch T, Goadsby PJ. The trigeminocervical complex and migraine: current concepts and synthesis. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 7(5):371–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ruff RL, Blake K. Pathophysiological links between traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic headaches. F1000Research. 2016;5:2116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Finkel AG, Yerry JA, Klaric JS, Ivins BJ, Scher A, Choi YS. Headache in military service members with a history of mild traumatic brain injury: a cohort study of diagnosis and classification. Cephalalgia. 2016:333102416651285.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Watanabe TK, Bell KR, Walker WC, Schomer K. Systematic review of interventions for post-traumatic headache. PM R. 2012;4(2):129–40.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Walker J, Howell S. Ultrasound guided greater occipital nerve blocks for post-traumatic occipital neuralgia. W V Med J. 2014;110(2):12–3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Peripheral painful traumatic trigeminal neuropathies - Benoliel - 2011 - Oral Diseases - Wiley Online Library. [Internet]. Available from:  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1601-0825.2011.01883.x/full
  41. 41.
    Elias L-A, Yilmaz Z, Smith JG, Bouchiba M, van der Valk RA, Page L, et al. PainDETECT: a suitable screening tool for neuropathic pain in patients with painful post-traumatic trigeminal nerve injuries? Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014;43(1):120–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Dieb W, Hafidi A. Mechanism of GABA involvement in post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathic pain: activation of neuronal circuitry composed of PKCγ interneurons and pERK1/2 expressing neurons. Eur J Pain. 2015;19(1):85–96.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Haas DC. Chronic post-traumatic headaches classified and compared with natural headaches. Cephalalgia Int J Headache. 1996;16(7):486–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Baandrup L, Jensen R. Chronic post-traumatic headache – a clinical analysis in relation to the international headache classification 2nd edition. Cephalalgia. 2005;25(2):132–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Heyer GL, Idris SA. Does analgesic overuse contribute to chronic post-traumatic headaches in adolescent concussion patients? Pediatr Neurol. 2014;50(5):464–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Evers S, Suhr B, Bauer B, Grotemeyer KH, Husstedt IW. A retrospective long-term analysis of the epidemiology and features of drug-induced headache. J Neurol. 1999;246(9):802–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wronski M, Zagami AS. Investigation of patients presenting with headache [Internet]. Available from: http://medicinetoday.com.au/2015/november/feature-article/investigation-patients-presenting-headache.
  48. 48.
    M S, Lamont AC, Alias NA, Win MN. Red flags in patients presenting with headache: clinical indications for neuroimaging. Br J Radiol. 2003;76(908):532–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Management of Headache Following Concussion/ Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Guidance for Primary Care Management in Deployed and Non-Deployed Settings [Internet]. DVBIC; 2016. Available from: https://dvbic.dcoe.mil/files/resources/DVBIC_2687_Headache-Following-Mild-TBI_Clinical-Recommendation_v1.0_2016-07-07.pdf.
  50. 50.
    Rendas-Baum R, Yang M, Varon SF, Bloudek LM, DeGryse RE, Kosinski M. Validation of the headache impact test (HIT-6) in patients with chronic migraine. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2014;12:117.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wenzel RG, Sarvis CA, Krause ML. Over-the-counter drugs for acute migraine attacks: literature review and recommendations. Pharmacother J Hum Pharmacol Drug Ther. 2003;23(4):494–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Chronic Migraine Prevalence, Disability, and Sociodemographic Factors: Results From the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study - Buse - 2012 - Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain - Wiley Online Library [Internet]. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.wrnmmc.idm.oclc.org/doi/10.1111/j.1526-4610.2012.02223.x/abstract.
  53. 53.
    Kosinski M, Bayliss MS, Bjorner JB, Ware JE, Garber WH, Batenhorst A, et al. A six-item short-form survey for measuring headache impact: the HIT-6. Qual Life Res Int J Qual Life Asp Treat Care Rehabil. 2003;12(8):963–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Stewart WF, Lipton RB, Dowson AJ, Sawyer J. Development and testing of the migraine disability assessment (MIDAS) questionnaire to assess headache-related disability. Neurology. 2001;56(suppl 1):S20–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Nampiaparampil DE. Prevalence of chronic pain after traumatic brain injury: a systematic review. JAMA. 2008;300(6):711–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Weathers FW, Keane TM, Davidson JR. Clinician-administered PTSD scale: a review of the first ten years of research. Depress Anxiety. 2001;13(3):132–56.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ali G-C, Ryan G, Silva MJD. Validated screening tools for common mental disorders in low and middle income countries: a systematic review. PLoS One. 2016;11(6):e0156939.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Westergren A, Broman J-E, Hellström A, Fagerström C, Willman A, Hagell P. Measurement properties of the minimal insomnia symptom scale as an insomnia screening tool for adults and the elderly. Sleep Med. 2015;16(3):379–84.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Donohoe CD. The role of the physical examination in the evaluation of headache. Med Clin North Am. 2013;97(2):197–216.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Amyot F, Arciniegas DB, Brazaitis MP, Curley KC, Diaz-Arrastia R, Gandjbakhche A, et al. A review of the effectiveness of neuroimaging modalities for the detection of traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2015;32(22):1693–721.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Wintermark M, Sanelli PC, Anzai Y, Tsiouris AJ, Whitlow CT, Druzgal TJ, et al. Imaging evidence and recommendations for traumatic brain injury: conventional neuroimaging techniques. J Am Coll Radiol. 2015;12(2):e1–14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Neuroimaging Following Mild TBI in the Non-Deployed Setting Clinical Recommendation [Internet]. DVBIC; 2013. Available from: https://dvbic.dcoe.mil/material/neuroimaging-following-mtbi-non-deployed-setting-clinical-recommendation.
  63. 63.
    Thompson BG, Brown RD, Amin-Hanjani S, Broderick JP, Cockroft KM, Connolly ES, et al. Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms a Guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2015;46(8):2368–400.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Chen CC-C, Chang PC-T, Shy C-G, Chen W-S, Hung H-C. CT angiography and MR angiography in the evaluation of carotid cavernous sinus fistula prior to embolization: a comparison of techniques. Am J Neuroradiol. 2005;26(9):2349–56.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Stam J. Thrombosis of the cerebral veins and sinuses. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(17):1791–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Biondi DM. Cervicogenic headache: a review of diagnostic and treatment strategies. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2005;105(4 Suppl 2):16S–22S.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Knackstedt H, Kråkenes J, Bansevicius D, Russell MB. Magnetic resonance imaging of craniovertebral structures: clinical significance in cervicogenic headaches. J Headache Pain. 2012;13(1):39–44.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Graff-Radford SB, Schievink WI. High-pressure headaches, low-pressure syndromes, and CSF leaks: diagnosis and management. Headache J Head Face Pain. 2014;54(2):394–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Theeler BJ, Erickson JC. Posttraumatic headache in military personnel and veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2012;14(1):36–49.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Arciniegas DB, Anderson CA, Topkoff J, McAllister TW. Mild traumatic brain injury: a neuropsychiatric approach to diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2005;1(4):311–27.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Holland S, Silberstein SD, Freitag F, Dodick DW, Argoff C, Ashman E. Evidence-based guideline update: NSAIDs and other complementary treatments for episodic migraine prevention in adults: [RETIRED] report of the quality standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of neurology and the American headache society. Neurology. 2012;78(17):1346–53.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Waldie KE, Buckley J, Bull PN, Poulton R. Tension-type headache: a life-course review. J Headache Pain Manag [Internet]. 2016. Available from: http://headache.imedpub.com/abstract/tensiontype-headache-a-lifecourse-review-7702.html.
  73. 73.
    Rana MV. Managing and treating headache of cervicogenic origin. Med Clin North Am. 2013;97(2):267–80.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Láinez MJ, García-Casado A, Gascón F. Optimal management of severe nausea and vomiting in migraine: improving patient outcomes. Patient Relat Outcome Meas. 2013;4:61–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Friedman BW, Garber L, Yoon A, Solorzano C, Wollowitz A, Esses D, et al. Randomized trial of IV valproate vs metoclopramide vs ketorolac for acute migraine. Neurology. 2014;82(11):976–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Erickson JC. Treatment outcomes of chronic post-traumatic headaches after mild head trauma in US soldiers: an observational study. Headache J Head Face Pain. 2011;51(6):932–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Knowles S, Oh P, Gomes T. Ontario drug policy research network. Triptans for acute migraine: drug class review to help inform policy decisions. Headache. 2015;55(Suppl 4):191–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Cameron C, Kelly S, Hsieh S-C, Murphy M, Chen L, Kotb A, et al. Triptans in the acute treatment of migraine: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Headache. 2015;55(Suppl 4):221–35.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Newman LC. Why triptan treatment can fail: focus on gastrointestinal manifestations of migraine. Headache J Head Face Pain. 2013;53:11–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Treating migraine headaches with Triptans Comparing effectiveness, safety, and price of these medications. Consum Rep. 2013.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Loder E, Weizenbaum E. Adding NSAIDs to triptans: could less be more? Cephalalgia. 2014;34(6):407–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Tepper SJ, Spears RC. Acute treatment of migraine. Neurol Clin. 2009;27(2):417–27.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Marmura MJ, Silberstein SD, Schwedt TJ. The acute treatment of migraine in adults: the American headache society evidence assessment of migraine pharmacotherapies. Headache J Head Face Pain. 2015;55(1):3–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Ansari H, Ziad S. Drug-drug interactions in headache medicine. Headache. 2016;56(7):1241–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Evers S, Jensen R. Treatment of medication overuse headache – guideline of the EFNS headache panel. Eur J Neurol. 2011;18(9):1115–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Romero CE, Baron JD, Knox AP, Hinchey JA, Ropper AH. Barbiturate withdrawal following Internet purchase of fioricet. Arch Neurol. 2004;61(7):1111–2.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kristoffersen ES, Lundqvist C. Medication-overuse headache: a review. J Pain Res. 2014;7:367–78.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Taghdiri F, Togha M, Razeghi Jahromi S, Paknejad SMH. Celecoxib vs prednisone for the treatment of withdrawal headache in patients with medication overuse headache: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Headache J Head Face Pain. 2015;55(1):128–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Cheung V, Amoozegar F, Dilli E. Medication overuse headache. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2015;15(1):509.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Mei D, Ferraro D, Zelano G, Capuano A, Vollono C, Gabriele C, et al. Topiramate and triptans revert chronic migraine with medication overuse to episodic migraine. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2006;29(5):269–75.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Saper JR, Da Silva AN. Medication overuse headache: history, features, prevention and management strategies. CNS Drugs. 2013;27(11):867–77.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Silberstein SD. Practice parameter: evidence-based guidelines for migraine headache (an evidence-based review): report of the quality standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of neurology. Neurology. 2000;55(6):754–62.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Estemalik E, Tepper S. Preventive treatment in migraine and the new US guidelines. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2013;9:709–20.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Evers S, Áfra J, Frese A, Goadsby PJ, Linde M, May A, et al. EFNS guideline on the drug treatment of migraine – revised report of an EFNS task force. Eur J Neurol. 2009;16(9):968–81.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Sinclair AJ, Sturrock A, Davies B, Matharu M. Headache management: pharmacological approaches. Pract Neurol. 2015;15(6):411–23.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Lipton RB, Silberstein SD. Episodic and chronic migraine headache: breaking down barriers to optimal treatment and prevention. Headache J Head Face Pain. 2015;55:103–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Jackson JL, Cogbill E, Santana-Davila R, Eldredge C, Collier W, Gradall A, et al. A comparative effectiveness meta-analysis of drugs for the prophylaxis of migraine headache. PLoS One. 2015;10(7):e0130733.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Pringsheim T, Davenport W, Mackie G, Worthington I, Aubé M, Christie SN, et al. Canadian headache society guideline for migraine prophylaxis. Can J Neurol Sci J Can Sci Neurol. 2012;39(2 Suppl 2):S1–59.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Zesiewicz TA, Shaw JD, Allison KG, Staffetti JS, Okun MS, Sullivan KL. Update on treatment of essential tremor. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2013;15(4):410–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Freitag F. Managing and treating tension-type headache. Med Clin North Am. 2013;97(2):281–92.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Gadient PM, Smith JH. The neuralgias: diagnosis and management. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2014;14(7):459.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Campbell JK, Penzien DB, Wall EM. Evidence based guidelines for migraine headaches: behavioral and physical treatments. U.S. Headache Consortium. Available from:www.aan.com/public/practiceguidelines/headache.
  103. 103.
    Conidi FX. Interventional treatment for post-traumatic headache. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2016;20(6):40.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Yerry JA, Kuehn D, Finkel AG. Onabotulinum toxin a for the treatment of headache in service members with a history of mild traumatic brain injury: a cohort study. Headache. 2015;55(3):395–406.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Neely ET, Midgette LA, Scher AI. Clinical review and epidemiology of headache disorders in US Service members: with emphasis on post-traumatic headache. Headache J Head Face Pain. 2009;49(7):1089–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lippert-Grüner M. Botulinum toxin in the treatment of post-traumatic headache - case study. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2012;46(6):591–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ajal M. Dave
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jay C. Erickson
    • 2
  • Brett J. Theeler
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyWalter Reed National Military Medical CenterBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurologySt. Joseph’s HospitalTacomaUSA

Personalised recommendations