Behavioral and Psychiatric Comorbidities of TBI

  • Robert L. Collins
  • Hannah L. Combs
  • Shannon R. Miles
  • Nicholas J. Pastorek
  • Andra Teten Tharp
  • Thomas A. KentEmail author


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with a variety of behavioral consequences, including symptoms of depression, anxiety, aggression, and impulse control and overlaps with many of the symptoms of posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic stress disorder. There are many challenges to researchers and clinicians, including heterogeneity of the injury, distinguishing premorbid characteristics from the consequences of the TBI, lack of specificity in diagnostic criteria, and the absence of systematic therapeutic trials. In this chapter, we present an overview of the literature on psychiatric and behavioral consequences of TBI, highlighting those studies that investigate the incidence of these conditions, contribution of premorbid functioning to subsequent symptoms, and characteristics of mild TBI (frequently referred to as concussion) that provide clues to distinguishing it from other psychiatric comorbidities. Our analysis of the available literature suggests that in some but not all cases, TBI may diminish inhibitory control over certain behaviors, while in others there may be an exacerbation of clinical expression of psychiatric symptoms. Potential treatments need to consider the possibility of adverse events in patients who have suffered a TBI, and prospective trials should be encouraged.


Impulsive aggression Postconcussion syndrome Suicide Posttraumatic stress disorder Depression Traumatic brain injury Military Veteran Aggression 


  1. 1.
    Faul M, Xu L, Wald MM, Coronado VG. Traumatic brain injury in the United States: emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brain Injury Association of America. TBI incidence factsheet. Retrieved from:
  3. 3.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Report to congress on traumatic brain injury in the United States: epidemiology and rehabilitation. Atlanta: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention; 2015.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schwab KA, Warden D, Lux WE, Shupenko LA, Zitnay G. Defense and veteran brain injury center: peacetime and wartime missions. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2007;44:xiii–xxi.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Champion HR, Holcomb JB, Young LA. Injuries from explosions. J Trauma. 2009;66(5):1468–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Traumatic brain injury: hope through research. Bethesda: National Institute of Health; 2002.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jorge R, Robinson RG. Mood disorders following traumatic brain injury. NeuroRehabilitation. 2002;17(4):311–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Moore EL, Terryberry-Spohr L, Hope DA. Mild traumatic brain injury and anxiety sequelae: a review of the literature. Brain Inj. 2006;20:117–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hibbard MR, Uysal S, Kepler K, Bogdany J, Silver J. Axis I psychopathology in individuals with traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 1998;13(4):24–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Horner MD, Selassie AW, Lineberry L, Ferguson PL, Labbate LA. Predictors of psychological symptoms 1 year after traumatic brain injury: a population-based epidemiological study. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2008;23:74–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Moldover JE, Goldberg KB, Prout MF. Depression after traumatic brain injury: a review of evidence for clinical heterogeneity. Neuropsychol Rev. 2004;14(3):143–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, Walters EE. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of twelve-month DSM-IV-TR disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62(6):617–27.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Seel RT, Macciocchi S, Kreutzer JS. Clinical considerations for the diagnosis of major depression after moderate to severe TBI. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2010;25(2):99–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kim E, Lauterbach EC, Reeve A, Arciniegas DB, Coburn KL, Mendez MF, Rummans TA, Coffey EC, ANPA Committee on Research. Neuropsychiatric complications of traumatic brain injury: a critical review of the literature (a report by the ANPA Committee on Research). J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2007;19(2):106–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Koponen S, Taiminen T, Portin R, Himanen L, Isoniemi H, Heinonen H, Hinkka S, Tenovuo O. Axis I and II psychiatric disorders after traumatic brain injury: a 30-year follow-up study. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159(8):1315–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Levin HS, Brown SA, Song JX, McCauley SR, Boake C, Contant CF, et al. Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder at three months after mild to moderate traumatic brain injury. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2001;23:754–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rosenthal M, Christensen BK, Ross TP. Depression following traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1998;79(1):90–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Levin HS, McCauley SR, Pedroza Josic C, Boake C, Brown SA, Goodman HS, et al. Predicting depression following mild traumatic brain injury. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62:523–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Glenn MB, O’Neil-Pirozzi T, Goldstein R, Burke D, Jacob L. Depression amongst outpatients with traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 2001;15(9):811–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mooney G, Speed J, Sheppard S. Factors related to recovery after mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 2005;19:12975–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Seel RT, Kreutzer JS, Rosenthal M, Hammond FM, Corrigan JD, Black K. Depression after traumatic brain injury: a National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research Model Systems multicenter investigation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003;84(2):177–84.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hibbard MR, Ashman TA, Spielman LA, Chun D, Charatz HJ, Melvin S. Relationship between depression and psychosocial functioning after traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004;85(4 suppl 2):43–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rapoport MJ, McCullagh S, Streiner D, Feinstein A. Age and major depression after mild traumatic brain injury. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2003;11:365–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chamelian L, Feinstein A. The effects of major depression on subjective and objective cognitive deficits in mild to moderate traumatic brain injury. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2006;18(1):33–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Keiski MA, Shore DL, Hamilton JM. The role of depression in verbal memory following traumatic brain injury. Clin Neuropsychol. 2006;21(5):744–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Draper K, Ponsford J, Schonberger M. Psychosocial and emotional outcomes 10 years following traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2007;22:278–87.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jorge RE, Arciniegas DB. Mood disorders after TBI. Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2014;37(1):13–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bay E, Donders J. Risk factors for depressive symptoms after mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 2008;22(3):233–41.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jorge RE, Robinson RG, Arndt SV, Starkstein SE, Forrester AW, Geisler F. Depression following traumatic brain injury: a 1 year longitudinal study. J Affect Disord. 1993;27(4):233–43.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fann JR, Burington B, Leonetti A, Jaffe K, Katon WJ, Thompson RS. Psychiatric illness following traumatic brain injury in an adult health maintenance organization population. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61(1):53–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Epstein RS, Ursano RJ. Anxiety disorders. In: Silver JM, Yudofsky SC, Hales RE, editors. Neuropsychiatry of traumatic brain injury. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press; 1994.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hiott DW, Labbate L. Anxiety disorders associated with traumatic brain injuries. NeuroRehabilitation. 2002;17(4):345–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rao V, Lyketsos CG. Psychiatric aspects of traumatic brain injury. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2002;25(1):43–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Paul SM. Anxiety and depression: a common neurobiological substrate? J Clin Psychiatry. 1988;49 Suppl:13–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jorge RE, Robinson RG, Starkstein SE, Arndt SV, Forrester AW, Geisler FH. Secondary mania following traumatic brain injury. Am J Psychiatry. 1993;150:916–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Koren D, Norman D, Cohen A, Berman J, Klein EM. Increased PTSD risk with combat-related injury: a matched comparison study of injured and uninjured soldiers experiencing the same combat events. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:276–82.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hoge CW, McGurk D, Thomas JL, Cox AL, Engel CC, et al. Mild traumatic brain injury in U.S. soldiers returning from Iraq. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:453–63.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bryant RA, Harvey AG. Acute stress response: a comparison of head injured and non-head injured patients. Psychol Med. 1995;25:869–74.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Middelboe T, Anderson HS, Birket-Smith M, Friis ML. Minor head injury: impact on general health after 1 year. A prospective follow-up study. Acta Neurol Scand. 1991;85:5–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ohry A, Rattok J, Solomon Z. Post-traumatic stress disorder in brain injury patients. Brain Inj. 1996;10:687–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kessler RC, Sonnega A, Bromet E, Hughes M, Nelson CB. Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1995;52:1048–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sbordone RJ, Liter JC. Mild traumatic brain injury does not produce post-traumatic stress disorder. Brain Inj. 1995;9:405–12.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gil S, Caspi Y, Ben-Ari IZ, Koren D, Klein E. Does memory of a traumatic event increase the risk for posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with traumatic brain injury? A prospective study. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:963–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bryant RA, Harvey AG. Relationship between acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder following mild traumatic brain injury. Am J Psychiatry. 1998;155:625–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mayou RA, Black J, Bryant B. Unconsciousness, amnesia, and psychiatric symptoms following road traffic accident injury. Br J Psychiatry. 2000;177:540–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    King NS. PTSD and traumatic brain injury: folklore and fact? Brain Inj. 2008;22:1–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bryant RA, Harvey AG. Postconcussive symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder after mild traumatic brain injury. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1999;187:302–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lagarde E, Salmi LR, Holm LW, Contrand B, Masson R, Ribereau-Gayon R, et al. Association of symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury with posttraumatic stress disorder vs postconcussion syndrome. JAMA Psychiat. 2014;71:1032–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Polusny MA, Kehle SM, Nelson NW, Erbes CR, Arbisi PA, Thuras P. Longitudinal effects of mild traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder comorbidity on postdeployment outcomes in national guard soldiers deployed to Iraq. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011;68:79–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ponsford J, Cameron P, Fitzgerald M, Grant M, Mikocka-Walus A, Schönberger M. Predictors of postconcussive symptoms 3 months after mild traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychology. 2012;26:304–13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Taylor BC, Hagel EM, Carlson KF, Cifu DX, Cutting A, Bidelspach DE, et al. Prevalence and costs of co-occurring traumatic brain injury with and without psychiatric disturbance and pain among Afghanistan and Iraq war veteran VA users. Med Care. 2012;50:342–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Barnes S, Walter K, Chard K. Does a history of mild traumatic brain injury increase suicide risk in veterans with PTSD? Rehabil Psychol. 2012;57(1):18–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Stojanovic MP, Fonda J, Fortier CB, Higgins DM, Rudolph JL, Milberg WP, et al. Influence of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on pain intensity levels in OEF/OIF/OND veterans. Pain Med. 2016;17(11):2017–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Elbogen E, Johnson S, Newton V, Straits-Troster K, Vasterling JJ, Wagner HR, et al. Criminal justice involvement, trauma, and negative affect in Iraq and Afghanistan war era veterans. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2012;80:1097–102.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Jackson CE, Green JD, Bovin MJ, Vasterling JJ, Holowka DW, Ranganathan G, et al. Mild traumatic brain injury, PTSD, and psychosocial functioning among male and female U.S. OEF/OIF veterans. J Trauma Stress. 2016;29:309–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Miles SR, Graham DP, Teng EJ. Examining the influence of mild traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder on alcohol use disorder in OEF/OIF veterans. Mil Med. 2015;180(1):45–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gordon S, Fitzpatrick P, Hilsabeck R. No effect of PTSD and other psychiatric disorders on cognitive functioning in veterans with mild TBI. Clin Neuropsychol. 2011;25(3):337–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Scheenen ME, Spikman JM, de Koning ME, van der Horn HJ, Roks G, Hageman G, et al. Patients “at risk” of suffering from persistent complaints after mild traumatic brain injury: the role of coping, mood disorders, and post-traumatic stress. J Neurotrauma. 2017;34(1):31–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Brown G, Chadwick O, Shaffer D, Rutter M, Traub M. A prospective study of children with head injuries: III. Psychiatric sequelae. Psychol Med. 1981;11(1):63–78.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Thomsen IV. Late outcome of very severe blunt head trauma: a 10–15 year second follow-up. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1984;47:260–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rao V, Lyketsos C. Neuropsychiatric sequelae of traumatic brain injury. Psychosomatics. 2000;41(2):95–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Davison KE, Bagley C, Herrington RN. Schizophrenia-like psychoses associated with organic disorders of the central nervous system: a review of the literature. Headley Bros. Br J Psychiatry. 1969;4:113–84.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Nasrallah HA, Fowler RC, Judd LL. Schizophrenia-like illness following head injury. Psychosomatics. 1981;22(4):359–61.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    David A, Prince M. Psychosis following head injury: a critical review. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005;76(suppl 1):i53–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Dilley M, Avent C. Long-term neuropsychiatric disorders after traumatic brain injury. In: Psychiatric disorders-worldwide advances. Rijeka: InTech; 2011. p. 301–27.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Pietrzak RH, Johnson DC, Goldstein MB, Malley JC, Southwick SM. Posttraumatic stress disorder mediates the relationship between mild traumatic brain injury and health and psychosocial functioning in veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2009;197:748–53.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Tanielian T, Jaycox LH, editors. Invisible wounds of war: psychological and cognitive injuries, their consequences, and services to assist recovery. Santa Monica: RAND; 2008.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Simpson G, Tate R. Suicidality in people surviving a traumatic brain injury: prevalence, risk factors and implications for clinical management. Brain Inj. 2007;21:1335–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Teasdale TW, Engberg AW. Suicide after traumatic brain injury: a population study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2001;71:436–40.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Wasserman L, Shaw T, Vu M, Ko C, Bollegala D, Bhalerao S. An overview of traumatic brain injury and suicide. Brain Inj. 2008;22:811–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Nott MT, Chapparo C, Baguley IJ. Agitation following traumatic brain injury: an Australian sample. Brain Inj. 2006;20(11):1175–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Johnson R, Balleny H. Behaviour problems after brain injury: incidence and need for treatment. Clin Rehabil. 1996;10:173–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kim E. Agitation, aggression, and disinhibition syndromes after traumatic brain injury. NeuroRehabilitation. 2002;17:297–310.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Arango-Lasprilla JC, Ketchum JM, Dezfulian T, Kreutzer JS, O’Neil-Pirozzi TM, Hammond F, et al. Predictors of marital stability 2 years following traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 2008;22(7):565–74.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Marsh NV, Martinovich WM. Executive dysfunction and domestic violence. Brain Inj. 2006;20(1):61–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Oquendo MA, Friedman JH, Grunebaum MF, Burke A, Silver JM, Mann JJ. Suicidal behavior and mild traumatic brain injury in major depression. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2004;192:430–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    DelBello MP, Soutullo CA, Zimmerman ME, Sax KW, Williams JR, McElroy SL, et al. Traumatic brain injury in individuals convicted of sexual offenses with and without bipolar disorder. Psychiatry Res. 1999;89:281–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kelly G, Brown S, Todd J, Kremer P. Challenging behaviour profiles of people with acquired brain injury living in community settings. Brain Inj. 2008;22(6):457–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Dyer KFW, Bell R, McCann J, Rauch R. Aggression after traumatic brain injury: analysing socially desirable responses and the nature of aggressive traits. Brain Inj. 2006;20(11):1163–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Alderman N. Prevalence, characteristics and causes of aggressive behaviour observed within a neurobehavioural rehabilitation service: predictors and implications for management. Brain Inj. 2007;21(9):891–911.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Tateno A, Jage RE, Robinson RG. Clinical correlates of aggressive behaviour after traumatic brain injury. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2003;15:155–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Yudofsky SC, Silver JM, Jackson W, Endicott J, Williams D. The Overt Aggression Scale for the objective rating of verbal and physical aggression. Am J Psychiatry. 1986;143(1):35–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Alderman N, Knight C, Morgan C. Use of a modified version of the Overt Aggression Scale in the measurement and assessment of aggressive behaviours following brain injury. Brain Inj. 1997;11(7):503–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Baguley IJ, Cooper J, Felmingham KL. Aggressive behavior following traumatic brain injury: how common is common? J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2006;21:45–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Buss AH, Perry M. The aggression questionnaire. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1992;63:452–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Slaughter B, Fann JR, Ehde D. Traumatic brain injury in a county jail population: prevalence, neuropsychological functioning and psychiatric disorders. Brain Inj. 2003;17(9):731–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Maiuro RD, Vitaliano PP, Chan TS. A brief measure of for the assessment of anger and aggression. J Interpers Violence. 1987;2:166–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Brewer-Smyth K, Burgess AW, Shults J. Physical and sexual abuse, salivary cortisol, and neurologic correlates of violent criminal behaviors in female prison inmates. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;55:21–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Grafman J, Schwab K, Warden D, Pridgen A, Brown HR, Salazar AM. Frontal lobe injuries, violence, and aggression: a report of the Vietnam Head Injury Study. Neurology. 1996;46:1231–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Mental Health Advisory Team V. Full report. 2008. Retrieved from:
  92. 92.
    Bryant RA. Posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury: can they co-exist? Clin Psychol Rev. 2001;21:931–48.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Schopp LH, Shigaki CL, Bounds TA, Johnstone B, Stucky RC, Conway BA. Outcomes in TBI with violent versus nonviolent etiology in a predominantly rural setting. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2006;21:213–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Beck AT, Steer RA, Garbin MG. Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: twenty-five years of evaluation. Clin Psychol Rev. 1988;8:77–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hoaken PNS, Steward SH. Drugs of abuse and the elicitation of human aggressive behavior. Addict Behav. 2003;28:1533–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Moeller FG, Barratt ES, Dougherty DM, Schmitz JM, Swann AC. Psychiatric aspect of impulsivity. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158:1783–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed, text revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2000.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Machamer JE, Temkin NR, Dikmen SS. Neurobehavioral outcome in persons with violent or normal traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2003;18:387–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Niemeier JP, Marwitz JH, Lesher K, Walker WC, Bushnik T. Gender differences in executive functions following traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychol Rehabil. 2007;17:293–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Damasio H, Grabowski T, Frank R, Galaburda AM, Damasio AR. The return of Phineas Gage: clues about the brain from the skull of a famous patient. Science. 1994;264:1102–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Stein DJ, Moeller FG. The man who turned bad. CNS Spectr. 2005;10:88–90.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Greve KW, Love J, Sherwin E, Stanford M, Mathias C, Houston R. Cognitive strategy usage in long term survivors of severe traumatic brain injury with persisting impulsive aggression. Personal Individ Differ. 2002;32:639–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Barratt ES, Stanford MS, Kent TA, Felthous A. Neuropsychological and cognitive psychophysiological substrates of impulsive aggression. Biol Psychiatry. 1997;41:1045–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Barratt ES, Stanford MS, Felthous AR, Kent TA. The effects of phenytoin on impulsive and premeditated aggression: a controlled study. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1997;17(5):341–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Greve KW, Sherwin E, Stanford MS, Mathias C, Love J, Ramzinski P. Personality and neurocognitive correlates of impulsive aggression in long-term survivors of severe traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 2001;15:255–62.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Barratt ES, Kent TA, Bryant SG, Felthous AR. A controlled trial of phenytoin in impulsive aggression. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1991;11:388–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Warden DL, Gordon B, McAllister TW, Silver JM, Barth JT, Bruns J, et al. Guidelines for the pharmacologic treatment of neurobehavioral sequelae of traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2006;23(10):1468–501.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Silver JM, Yudofsky SC. In: Hollander E, Stein DJ, editors. Organic mental disorders and impulsive aggression in impulsivity and aggression. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 1995.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Deb S, Crownshaw T. The role of pharmacotherapy in the management of behaviour disorders in traumatic brain injury patients. Brain Inj. 2004;18:1–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Raskind MA. Reduction of nightmares and other PTSD symptoms in combat veterans by prazosin: a placebo-controlled study. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:371–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Raskind MA, Peskind ER, Chow B, Harris C, Davis-Karim A, Holmes HA, et al. Trial of prazosin for post-traumatic stress disorder in military veterans. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(6):507–17.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Borg J, Holm L, Peloso PM, Cassidy JD, von Holst H, Cassidy JD, et al. Non-surgical intervention and cost for mild traumatic brain injury: results of the WHO collaborating centre task force in mild traumatic brain injury. J Rehabil Med. 2004;43:76–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Comper P, Bisschop S, Carnide N, Triccio A. A systematic review of treatments for mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 2005;19:863–80.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Snell DL, Surgenor LJ, Hay-Smith JC, Siegert RJ. A systematic review of psychological treatments for mild traumatic brain injury: an update on the evidence. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2009;31:20–38.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Davis JJ, Walter KH, Chard KM, Parkinson RB, Houston WS. Treatment adherence in cognitive processing therapy for combat-related PTSD with history of mild TBI. Rehabil Psychol. 2013;58(1):36–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    McCrea M, Kelly JP, Randolph C, Kluge J, Bartolic E, Finn G, et al. Standardized assessment of concussion (SAC): on-site mental status evaluation of the athlete. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 1998;13:27–35.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Knuth T, Letarte PB, Ling G, Moores LE, Rhee P, Tauber D, et al. Guidelines for the field management of combat related head trauma. New York: Brain Trauma Foundation; 2005.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Coldren RL, Kelly MP, Parish R, Dretsch M, Russel ML. Evaluation of the military acute concussion evaluation for une in combat operations more then 12 hours after injury. Mil Med. 2010;175:477–81.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Stone ME, Safadjou S, Farber B, Velazco N, Man J, Reddy SH, et al. Utility of the military acute concussion evaluation as a screening tool for mild traumatic brain injury in a civilian population. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015;79:147–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Definition of mild traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 1993;8:86–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    American Academy of Neurology. Practice parameter: the management of concussion in sports. Neurology. 1997;48:581–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Jaffee MS, Helmick KM, Girard PD, Meyer KS, Dinegar K, George K. Acute clinical care and care coordination for traumatic brain injury within Department of Defense. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2009;46:655–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Adler AB, Bliese PD, McGurk D, Hoge CW, Castro CA. Battlemind debriefing and battlemind training as early interventions with soldiers returning from Iraq: randomization by platoon. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2009;77:928–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Mittenberg W, Tremont G, Zielinski RE, Fichera S, Rayls KR. Cognitive-behavioral prevention of postconcussion syndrome. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 1996;11:139–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Miller L, Mittenberg W. Brief cognitive behavioral interventions in mild traumatic brain injury. Appl Neuropsychol. 1998;5:172–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Bell KR, Hoffman JM, Temkin NR, Powell JM, Fraser RT, Esselman PC, et al. The effect of telephone counseling on reducing post-injury traumatic symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury: a randomized trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008;79:1275–81.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Paniak C, Toller-Lobe G, Durand J, Nagy J. A randomized trial of two treatments for mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 1998;12:1011–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Paniak C, Toller-Lobe G, Reynolds S, Melnyk A, Nagy J. A randomized trial of two treatments for mild traumatic brain injury: 1 year follow up. Brain Inj. 2000;14:219–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    World Health Organization. The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: diagnostic criteria for research. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1993.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Boake C, McCauley SR, Levin HS, Pedroza C, Contant CF, Song JX, et al. Diagnostic criteria for post-concussional syndrome after mild to moderate traumatic brain injury. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2005;17:350–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Department of Veterans Affairs and Department of Defense. VA/DOD clinical practice guideline for management of concussion/mild traumatic brain injury (v1.0); 2009.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Cornum R, Matthews MD, Seligman MEP. Comprehensive soldier fitness: building resilience in a challenging institutional context. Am Psychol. 2011;66:4–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Tedeschi RG, McNally RJ. Can we facilitate posttraumatic growth in combat veterans? Am Psychol. 2011;66:19–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Kraus JF, Nourjah P. The epidemiology of mild, uncomplicated brain injury. J Trauma. 1988;28:1637–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Sosin DM, Sniezek JE, Thurman DJ. Incidence of mild and moderate brain injury in the United States, 1991. Brain Inj. 1996;10:47–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Report to congress on mild traumatic brain injury in the United States: steps to prevent a serious public health problem. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2003.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Cassidy JD, Carroll LJ, Peloso PM, Borg J, von Holst H, Holm K, et al. Incidence, risk factors and prevention of mild traumatic brain injury: results of the WHO collaborating centre task force on mild traumatic brain injury. J Rehabil Med. 2004;43:28–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Terrio H, Brenner LA, Ivins BJ, Cho JM, Helmick K, Schwab K, et al. Traumatic brain injury screening: preliminary findings in a US Army brigade combat team. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2009;24:14–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Hoge CW, Goldberg HM, Castro CA. Care of war veterans with mild traumatic brain injury-flawed perspective. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:1588–91.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Alexander MP. Mild traumatic brain injury: pathophysiology, natural history and clinical management. Neurology. 1995;45:1253–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Ruff R. Two decades of advances in understanding of mild traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2005;20:5–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Gondusky JS, Reiter MP. Protecting military convoys in Iraq: an examination of battle injuries sustained by a mechanized battalion during Operation Iraqi Freedom II. Mil Med. 2005;170:546–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Binder LM, Rohling ML, Larrabee GL. A review of mild head trauma. Part I: meta-analytic review of neuropsychological studies. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 1997;19:421–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Rimel RW, Giordani B, Barth JT, Boll TJ, Jane JA. Disability caused by minor head injury. Neurosurgery. 1981;9:221–8.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Lezak M, Howieson D, Loring D. Neuropsychological assessment. 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2004.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Carroll LJ, Cassidy D, Peloso PM, Borg J, Holst H, Holm L, et al. Prognosis for mild traumatic brain injury: results of the WHO collaborating centre task force and mild traumatic brain injury. J Rehabil Med. 1994;43:84–105.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Dikmen S, Machamer J, Winn H, Temkin N. Neuropsychological outcome at 1-year post head injury. Neuropsychology. 1995;9:80–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Dikmen S, Ross B, Machamer J, Tempkin N. One year psychosocial outcome in head injury. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 1995;1:67–77.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Williams DH, Levin HS, Eisenberg HM. Mild head injury classification. Neurosurgery. 1990;27:422–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Kwok FA, Lee TM, Leung CH, Poon WS. Changes of cognitive functioning following mild traumatic brain injury over a 3-month period. Brain Inj. 2008;22:740–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Kashluba S, Hanks RA, Casey JE, Millis SR. Neuropsychologic and functional outcome after complicated mild traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008;89:904–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Potter S, Leigh E, Wade D, Fleminger S. The Rivermead post concussion symptoms questionnaire: a confirmatory factor analysis. J Neurol. 2006;253:1603–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    McCrea M, Randolph C, Kelly JP. Standardized Assessment for Concussion (SAC): manual for administration, scoring, and interpretation. 2nd ed. CNS Inc: Waukesha; 2000.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Alla S, Sullivan S, Hale L, McCrory P. Self report scales/checklists for the measurement of concussion symptoms: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2009;43:i3–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Ryan LM, Warden DL. Post concussion syndrome. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2003;15:310–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    McCrea M. Mild traumatic brain injury and postconcussion syndrome: the new evidence base for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Oxford University Press; 2008.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Smith-Seemiller L, Fow NR, Kant R, Franzen MD. Presence of post-concussion syndrome symptoms in patients with chronic pain vs mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 2003;17:199–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Piland SG, Motl RW, Guskiewicz KM, McCrea M, Ferrara MS. Structural validity of a self-report concussion-related symptom scale. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38:27–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Dikmen S, McLean A, Temkin N. Neuropsychological and psychosocial consequences of minor head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1986;49:1227–32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Levin HS, Amparo E, Eisenberg HM, Williams DH, High WM Jr, McArdle CB, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography in relation to the neurobehavioral sequelae of mild and moderate head injuries. J Neurosurg. 1987;66:706–13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Schretlen DJ, Shapiro AM. A quantitative review of the effects of traumatic brain injury on cognitive functioning. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2003;15:341–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Landre N, Poppe CJ, Davis N, Schmaus B, Hobbs SE. Cognitive functioning and postconcussive symptoms in trauma patients with and without mild TBI. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2006;21:255–73.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Belanger HG, Curtiss G, Demery JA, Lebowitz BK, Vanderploeg RD. Factors moderating neuropsychological outcomes following mild traumatic brain injury: a meta-analysis. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2005;11:215–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    McCrea M, Guskiewicz KM, Marshall SW. Acute effects and recovery time following concussion in collegiate football players: the NCAA concussion study. JAMA. 2003;290:2556–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Lees-Haley PR, Fox DD, Courtney JC. A comparison of complaints by mild brain injury claimants and other claimants describing subjective experiences immediately following their injury. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2001;16:689–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    De Kruijk JR, Leffers P, Menheere P, Meerhoff S, Rutten J, Twijnstra A. Prediction of post-traumatic complaints after mild traumatic brain injury: early symptoms and biochemical markers. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2002;73:727–32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Yang CC, Hua MS, Tu YK, Huang SJ. Early clinical characteristics of patients with persistent post-concussion symptoms: a prospective study. Brain Inj. 2009;23:299–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Wang Y, Chan RCK, Deng Y. Examination of postconcussion-like symptoms in healthy university students: relationships to subjective and objective neuropsychological function performance. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2006;21:339–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Paniak C, Reynolds S, Phillips K, Toller-Lobe G, Melnyk A, Nagy J. Patient complaints within 1 month of mild traumatic brain injury: a controlled study. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2002;17:319–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Iverson GL, McCracken LM. “Postconcussive” symptoms in persons with chronic pain. Brain Inj. 1997;11:783–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Mittenberg W, DiGiulio DV, Perrin S, Bass AE. Symptoms following mild head injury: expectation as aetiology. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1992;55:200–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Binder LM, Rohling ML. Money matters: a meta-analytic review of the effects of financial incentives on recovery after closed head injury. Am J Psychiatry. 1996;153:7–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Paniak C, Reynolds S, Toller-Lobe G, Melnyk A, Nagy J. A longitudinal study of the relationship between financial compensation and symptoms after treated mild traumatic brain injury. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2002;24:187–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Bush SS, Ruff RM, Tröster AI, Barth JT, Koffler S, Pliskin NH, et al. Symptom validity assessment: practice issues and medical necessity: NAN policy and planning committee. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2005;20:419–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Heilbronner RL, Sweet JJ, Morgan JE, Larrabee GJ, Millis SR, Conference Participants. American academy of clinical neuropsychology consensus conference statement on the neuropsychological assessment of effort, response bias, and malingering. Clin Neuropsychol. 2009;23:1093–129.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Green PJ, Rohling ML, Lees-Haley PR, Allen LM. Effort has a greater effect on test scores than severe brain injury in compensation claimants. Brain Inj. 2001;15:1045–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Wisdom NM, Pastorek NJ, Miller BI, Booth JE, Romesser JM, Linck JF, et al. PTSD and cognitive functioning: importance of including performance validity testing. Clin Neuropsychol. 2014;28:128–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Armistead-Jehle P. Symptom validity test performance in US veterans referred for evaluation of mild TBI. Appl Neuropsychol. 2010;17:52–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Freeman T, Powell M, Kimbrella T. Measuring symptom exaggeration in veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2008;158:374–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Frueha CB, Hamner MB, Cahill SP, Gold PB, Hamlin KL. Apparent symptom overreporting in combat veterans evaluated for ptsd. Clin Psychol Rev. 2000;20:853–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Jak AJ, Gregory A, Colón C, Schiehser DM, Delano-Wood L, Jurick SM, et al. Neuropsychological performance in treatment-seeking Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans with a history of mild traumatic brain injury. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2015;37:379–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Lange RT, Brickell T, French LM, Ivins B, Bhagwat A, Pancholi S, et al. Risk factors for postconcussion symptom reporting after traumatic brain injury in U.S. military service members. J Neurotrauma. 2013;30:237–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert L. Collins
    • 1
  • Hannah L. Combs
    • 2
  • Shannon R. Miles
    • 3
  • Nicholas J. Pastorek
    • 4
  • Andra Teten Tharp
    • 5
  • Thomas A. Kent
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.Neurology Care Line, Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Baylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Baylor College of Medicine, Department of NeurologyHoustonUSA
  3. 3.James A. Haley Veterans Hospital, HSR & D Center of Innovation on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (CINDRR)TamplaUSA
  4. 4.Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, Department of Rehabilitation and Extended Care LineHoutsonUSA
  5. 5.Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesHoustonUSA
  6. 6.Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A & M Health Science Center, Department of Neurology, Houston Methodist HospitalHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations