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Mild TBI and Co-Occurring PTSD Symptoms in Service Member Populations

  • Jonathan Wolf
  • Jeannine B. Mielke
  • Johanna M. WolfEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) can and does co-occur in both civilian and military populations. The evidence is now clear that TBI is a known risk factor for the development of PTSD in both populations. Given the lack of objective markers for mTBI and PTSD, as well as the overlapping symptoms, the disentanglement of PTSD and mTBI can be challenging. However, there are clear guidelines on how to approach treating the symptoms of each individually. While there is a paucity of research about how to treat these comorbid conditions in a comprehensive way, there are general guidelines that can be useful when treating this population, keeping in mind the use of clinical judgment and the individual needs of the patient being treated. This chapter serves to provide an overview of mild TBI and PTSD in military service member populations, outlines our current understanding of their interaction with one another, provides the current diagnostic criteria for both, outlines a high-level discussion of the interaction between mTBI and PTSD, highlights the empirical treatments for both disorders, and provides recommendations for future directions in understanding the interaction between mTBI and PTSD.

Keywords

Mild traumatic brain injury Posttraumatic stress disorder Co-occurring disorders 

Abbreviations

AOC

Alteration of consciousness

ART

Accelerated Response Therapy

CAPS

Clinician Administered Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale

CBT

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

CPG

Clinical Practice Guideline

CPT

Cognitive Processing Therapy

DoD

Department of Defense

DoDI 6490.11

Department of Defense INSTRUCTION 6490.11

DVBIC

Defense Veterans Brain Injury Center

EMDR

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing

GCS

Glasgow Coma Scale

GWOT

Global War on Terror

LOC

Loss of Consciousness

MACE

Military Acute Concussion Exam

mTBI

Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

OEF

Operation Enduring Freedom

OFS

Operation Freedom’s Sentinel

OIF

Operation Iraqi Freedom

OIR

Operation Inherent Resolve

OND

Operation New Dawn

PCL

Posttraumatic Disorder Checklist

PE

Prolonged Exposure Therapy

PTA

Posttraumatic amnesia

PTSD

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

SAC

Sideline Assessment of Concussion

TBI

Traumatic Brain Injury

VA/DoD

Veterans Health Administration/Department of Defense

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan Wolf
    • 1
  • Jeannine B. Mielke
    • 2
  • Johanna M. Wolf
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, National Intrepid Center of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain InjuryBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, National Intrepid Center of ExcellenceBethesdaUSA
  3. 3.Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Department of Behavioral HealthBethesdaUSA

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