This chapter investigates the relationships among discrimination, stigma, and bias and mental health within the LGBTQ community. The chapter discusses symptoms and correlates of poor mental health including psychological distress, suicide, and homelessness while also considering resiliency and protective factors. The chapter examines within group differences among the LGBT population, including the relationship of sexual identity to internalized homophobia and HIV/AIDS stigma and the ensuing impact of these stressors on the psychological distress of gay Black men. Another focus of chapter six is suicide given the data indicating that racial minority LGBT youth (African American and Latino) attempt suicide at twice the rate of non-minority LGBT youth (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, 2011). Homelessness is also discussed given that within the population of runaway and homeless youth (RHY), LGBTQ individuals are overrepresented at 20–40%, a much higher percentage than either heterosexual or cisgender (individuals whose gender identity matches the sex that they were assigned at birth) peers (e.g., Durso & Gates, Serving Our Youth: Findings from a National Survey of Service Providers Working with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth Who Are Homeless or at Risk of Becoming Homeless, 2012).
- Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). (2014). Implementing curricular and institutional climate changes to improve health care for individuals who are LGBT, gender non-conforming, or born with DSD (difference of sex development). Retrieved from https://www.aamc.org/download/414172/data/lgbt.pdf.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2011). Youth risk behavior surveillance. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss6104a1.htm.
- Child Welfare League of America. (2012). Recommended practices to promote the safety and well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth and youth at risk of living with HIV in child welfare settings. Retrieved from https://www.lambdalegal.org/sites/default/files/publications/downloads/recommended-practices-youth.pdf.
- Choi, K., Han, C., Paul, J., & Ayala, G. (2011). Strategies for managing racism and homophobia among U.S. ethnic and racial minority men who have sex with men. AIDS Education and Prevention, 23(2), 145–158.Google Scholar
- Corporation for Supportive Housing. (2011, November 11). True colors provides safe haven for LGBT youth. Retrieved from https://www.csh.org/2011/11/true-colors-provides-safe-haven-for-lgbt-youth/.
- Courtney, M., Dworsky, A., Ruth, G., Keller, T., Havilicek, J., & Bost, N. (2005). Midwest evaluation of the adult functioning of former foster youth: Outcomes at age 19. Retrieved from https://www.chapinhall.org/wp-content/uploads/Courtney_Midwest-Evaluation-Adult-Functioning_Report_2005.pdf.
- Cray, A., Miller, K., & Durso, L. (2013). Seeking shelter: The experiences and unmet needs of LGBT homeless youth. Retrieved from https://www.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/LGBTHomelessYouth.pdf.
- Derogatis, L., & Spencer, P. (1993). Brief Symptom Inventory: BSI. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.Google Scholar
- Durso, L., & Gates, G. (2012). Serving our youth: Findings from a national survey of service providers working with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth who are homeless or at risk of becoming homeless. Los Angeles: The Williams Institute with True Colors Fund and the Palette Fund. Retrieved from https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/Durso-Gates-LGBT-Homeless-Youth-Survey-July-2012.pdf.
- Gay and Lesbian Medical Association. (2013). Recommendations for enhancing the climate for LGBT students and employees in health professional schools. Retrieved from https://www.healthdiversity.pitt.edu/sites/default/files/RecommendationsforEnhancingLGBTClimateinHealthProfessionalSchools.pdf.
- King, M., Semlyen, J., Tai, S., Killespy, H., Osborn, D., Popelyuk, D., & Nazareth, I. (2008). A systematic review of mental disorder, suicide, and deliberate self-harm in lesbian, gay, and bisexual people. BMC Psychiatry, 8(70), 1–17.Google Scholar
- King, N. (1998). Template analysis. In G. Symon & C. Cassell (Eds.), Qualitative methods and analysis in organizational research: A practical guide (pp. 118–134). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Leon, A. (2017, May 12). LGBT people are prone to mental illness. It’s a truth we shouldn’t shy away from [Web log post]. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/may/12/lgbt-mental-health-sexuality-gender-identity.
- Lolai, D. (2015). “You’re going to be straight or you’re not going to live here”: Child support for LGBT homeless youth. Law & Sexuality: A Review of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, & Transgender Legal Issues, 24, 35–98.Google Scholar
- Millet, G., Malebranche, D., Mason, B., & Spikes, P. (2005). Focusing “down low”: Bisexual black men, HIV risk and heterosexual transmission. Journal of the National Medical Association, 97(Suppl. 7), S52–S59.Google Scholar
- National Conference of State Legislatures. (2014). Fostering Connections Act: State action. Retrieved from http://www.ncsl.org/research/human-services/fostering-connections-state-action.aspx.
- National Institute of Statistics. (2012). The homosexual population into the Italian community: Year 2011. Retrieved from https://www.istat.it/it/archivio/62168.
- Nolan, T. (2006). Outcomes for a transitional living program serving LGBTQ youth in New York City. Child Welfare, 85(2), 385–406.Google Scholar
- Pizer, J., Sears, B., Mallory, C., & Hunter, N. (2012). Evidence of persistent and pervasive workplace discrimination against LGBT people: The need for federal legislation prohibiting discrimination and providing for equal employment benefits. Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review, 45(3), 715–779.Google Scholar
- Ryan, C. (2010). Engaging families to support lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth: The family acceptance project. Prevention Researcher, 17(4), 11–13.Google Scholar
- Shelton, J., & Winkelstein, J. (2014). Librarians and social workers: Working together for homeless LGBTQ youth. Young Adult Library Services, 13(1), 2024.Google Scholar
- Sidaros, R. (2017). Current challenges in the management of LGBT suicide. Psychiatry Online, 12(1), 8–10.Google Scholar
- Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). (2014). A practioner’s resource guide: Helping families to support their LGBT children. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.Google Scholar
- United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (USDHUD). (2014). The 2014 annual homeless assessment report (AHAR) to Congress. Retrieved from https://www.hudexchange.info/resources/documents/2014-AHAR-Part1.pdf.
- Zhao, Y., Montoro, R., Igartua, K., & Thombs, B. (2010). Suicidal ideation and attempt among adolescents reporting “unsure” sexual identity or heterosexual identity plus same-sex attraction or behavior: Forgotten groups? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(2), 104–113.Google Scholar