Advertisement

Parenteral Sedation

  • Gregory BironEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Oral and maxillofacial surgeons receive extensive training in anesthetic techniques during residency with an emphasis on office-based anesthesia. This chapter delivers a step-by-step approach to anesthesia in the office focused on patient workup, office and operatory safety checks, anesthetic techniques, and managing an airway.

Keywords

Parenteral sedation Intravenous sedation Anesthesia Office-based anesthesia Maxillofacial anesthesia 

References

  1. 1.
    ASA Physical Status Classification System - American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA). In: American Society of Anesthesiologists. https://www.asahq.org/resources/clinical-information/asa-physical-status-classification-system. Accessed 22 July 2018.
  2. 2.
    Sankar A, Johnson S, Beattie W, Tait G, Wijeysundera D. Reliability of the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status scale in clinical practice. Br J Anaesth. 2014;113:424–32.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    deLeon I, Hausman LM. Office-based anesthesia. In: Clinical cases in anesthesia. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Sauders Elsevier; 2014. p. 390–4.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gerlach RM, Sweitzer BJ. Preoperative evaluation and medication. In: Basics of anesthesia. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018. p. 189–212.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chung F, Subramanyam R, Liao P, Sasaki E, Shapiro C, Sun Y. High STOP-bang score indicates a high probability of obstructive sleep apnoea. Survey Anesthesiol. 2012;56:312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chung F, Yegneswaran B, Liao P, et al. STOP questionnaire: a tool to screen patients for obstructive sleep apnea. Anesthesiology. 2008;108:812–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Joshi GP, Ankichetty SP, Gan TJ, Chung F. Society for ambulatory anesthesia consensus statement on preoperative selection of adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea scheduled for ambulatory surgery. Anesth Anal. 2012;115:1060–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sims PG, Kates CH, Moyer DJ, Rollert MK, Todd DW. Anesthesia in outpatient facilities. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;70:e31–49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kristensen MS. Airway management and morbid obesity. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2010;27:923–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Finucane B, Tsui B, Santora A. Principles of airway management. 4th ed. New York: Springer; 2010.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    (2017) Patient Assessment. AAOMS Parameters of Care: Clinical Practice Guidelines for Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Freeman WK, Gibbons RJ. Perioperative cardiovascular assessment of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. Mayo Clin Proc. 2009;84:79–90.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Koepke EJ, Manning EL, Miller TE, Ganesh A, Williams DGA, Manning MW. The rising tide of opioid use and abuse: the role of the anesthesiologist. Perioper Med. 2018;  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13741-018-0097-4.
  14. 14.
    Public Affairs What is the U.S. Opioid Epidemic? In: HHS.gov. https://www.hhs.gov/opioids/about-the-epidemic/index.html. Accessed 17 July 2018.
  15. 15.
    May JA, White HC, Leonard-White A, Warltier DC, Pagel PS. The patient recovering from alcohol or drug addiction: special issues for the anesthesiologist. Survey Anesthesiol. 2002;46:39–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mitra S, Sinatra RS. Perioperative management of acute pain in the opioid-dependent patient. Anesthesiology. 2004;101:212–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yi P, Pryzbylkowski P. 2015. Opioid induced hyperalgesia | Pain Medicine | Oxford Academic. In: OUP Academic. https://academic.oup.com/painmedicine/article/16/suppl_1/S32/2472483. Accessed 17 July 2018.
  18. 18.
    Vuyk J, Sitsen E, Reekers M. Opioid analgesics. In: Miller’s anesthesia. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Sauders Elsevier; 2015. p. 821–63.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wijeysundera DN, Sweitzer B-J. Preoperative evaluation. In: Miller’s anesthesia. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2015. p. 1085–155.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rodrigo C. The effects of cigarette smoking and anesthesia. Anesth Prog. 2000;47:143–50.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Treasure T, Bennett J. Office-based anesthesia. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2007;19:45–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Reece-Stremtan S, Campos M, Kokajko L, et al. ABM clinical protocol #15: analgesia and anesthesia for the breastfeeding mother, revised 2017. Breastfeed Med. 2017;12:500–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Benjamin C, Renyu L, Elizabeth V, Onyi O. Breastfeeding after anesthesia: a review for anesthesia providers regarding the transfer of medications into breast milk. Transl Perioper Pain Med. 2015;  https://doi.org/10.31480/2330-4871/023.
  24. 24.
    Apfelbaum JL, Hagberg CA, Caplan RA, et al. Practice Guidelines for Management of the Difficult Airway: An Updated Report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Management of the Difficult Airway. Anesthesiology. 2013;  https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31827773b2. http://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1918684. Accessed 17 July 2018.
  25. 25.
    Klinger K, Infosino A. Airway management. In: Basics of anesthesia. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018. p. 239–72.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    (2017) Practice Guidelines for Preoperative Fasting and the Use of Pharmacologic Agents to Reduce the Risk of Pulmonary Aspiration. Anesthesiology 126:376–393.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mets B. To stop or not? Anesth Anal. 2015;120:1413–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Malamed SF. Anatomy for venipuncture. In: Sedation. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2018. p. 298–307.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Malamed SF. Venipuncture technique. In: Sedation. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2018. p. 308–18.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Malamed SF. Emergency drugs and equipment. In: Sedation. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2018. p. 442–55.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Continuum of Depth of Sedation: Definition of General Anesthesia and Levels of Sedation/Analgesia - American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA). In: American Society of Anesthesiologists. http://www.asahq.org/quality-and-practice-management/standards-guidelines-and-related-resources/continuum-of-depth-of-sedation-definition-of-general-anesthesia-and-levels-of-sedation-analgesia. Accessed 27 July 2018.
  32. 32.
    Malamed SF. Intramuscular sedation. In: Sedation. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2018. p. 134–63.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Egan TD, Newberry C. Opioids. In: Basics of anesthesia. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018. p. 123–38.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Vuyk J, Sitsen E, Reekers M. Intravenous anesthetics. In: Miller’s anesthesia. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Sauders Elsevier; 2015. p. 821–63.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mertens MJ, Olofsen E, Engbers FHM, Burm AGL, Bovill JG, Vuyk J. Propofol reduces perioperative remifentanil requirements in a synergistic manner. Anesthesiology. 2003;99:347–59.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Asserhøj L, Mosbech H, Krøigaard M, Garvey L. No evidence for contraindications to the use of propofol in adults allergic to egg, soy or peanut † †This Article is accompanied by Editorial Aev401. Br J Anaesth. 2016;116:77–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Weerink MAS, Struys MMRF, Hannivoort LN, Barends CRM, Absalom AR, Colin P. Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dexmedetomidine. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2017;56:893–913.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Keating GM. Dexmedetomidine: a review of its use for sedation in the intensive care setting. Drugs. 2015;75:1119–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Butterfield KJ, Bennett JD, Dembo JB. Outpatient anesthesia. In: Peterson’s principles of oral and maxillofacial surgery. 3rd ed. Shelton, CT: People’s Medical Publishing House - USA; 2012. p. 63–93.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Frost EAM. Fluid management. In: Basics of anesthesia. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018. p. 395–401.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Office-Based Anesthesia Provided by the Oral and … https://www.aaoms.org/docs/govt_affairs/advocacy_white_papers/advocacy_office_based_anesthesia_whitepaper.pdf. Accessed 22 Aug 2018.
  42. 42.
    Roberts K. The nasopharyngeal airway: dispelling myths and establishing the facts. Emerg Med J. 2005;22:394–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nicholau D, Haehn M. Postanesthesia recovery. In: Basics of anesthesia. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018. p. 675–91.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Samol NB, Wittkugel EP. Pediatric laryngospasm. In: Complications in anesthesia. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018. p. 758–62.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Woods B, Sladen R. Perioperative considerations for the patient with asthma and bronchospasm. Br J Anaesth. 2009;103:i57–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Nel L, Eren E. Peri-operative anaphylaxis. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2011;71:647–58.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rosenberg H, Pollock N, Schiemann A, Bulger T, Stowell K. Malignant hyperthermia: a review. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2015;  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13023-015-0310-1.
  48. 48.
    Dickerson DM, Apfelbaum JL. Outpatient anesthesia. In: Basics of anesthesia. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018. p. 634–57.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Marshall SI, Chung F. Discharge criteria and complications after ambulatory surgery. Anesth Anal. 1999;88:508–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Apfelbaum JL, Silverstein JH, Chung FF, et al. Practice guidelines for postanesthetic care. Anesthesiology. 2013;118:291–307.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Awad IT, Chung F. Factors affecting recovery and discharge following ambulatory surgery. Can J Anesth. 2006;53:858–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Cao X, White PF, Ma H. An update on the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting. J Anesth. 2017;31:617–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    2012 CP1 JAN (2012) How to prevent and manage postoperative nausea and vomiting. In: Pharmaceutical Journal. https://www.pharmaceutical-journal.com/learning/learning-article/how-to-prevent-and-manage-postoperative-nausea-and-vomiting/11096163.article?firstPass=false. Accessed 30 July 2018.
  54. 54.
    White PF, Kehlet H, Neal JM, Schricker T, Carr DB, Carli F. The role of the anesthesiologist in fast-track surgery: from multimodal analgesia to perioperative medical care. Anesth Anal. 2007;104:1380–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Pittsburgh Medical CenterPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations