Water Resources from Apuseni Mountains—Major Coordinates

  • Răzvan Bătinaş
  • Gheorghe ŞerbanEmail author
  • Daniel Sabӑu
Part of the Springer Water book series (SPWA)


The strong precipitation and cool climate render the Apuseni Mountains a real “water castle” with a complex, radial development of the river network. The density of the river network has an average value between 0.6 and 1.0 km/km2, higher than the values found in the Eastern and Southern Carpathians; a deviation from these values occurs in the karstic areas where the surface drainage is replaced by an underground one: 0.4–0.5 km/km2 in the Pădurea Craiului Mountains, Vaşcău Plateau and Trascău Mountains (Pascu 1983). The hydrographic network is a result of the climate; therefore, the quantitative precipitation differences between the two slopes of the Apuseni Mountains are also manifested in the specific average flow rate: 20–40 l/s km2 on the west side of the Apuseni Mountains and 10–20 1/s km2 on the eastern side. According to this parameter, the entire mountain region is among the country’s water-surplus areas. The areas with moderate water resources belong to the peripheral and depression areas, with values of 5–10 l/s km2. The water resources evaluation is done by analyzing the hydrological regime, respectively by establishing the water balance and calculating the aridity index, rated for Romania by I. Ujvari, since 1972. The introductory chapter presents aspects related to the general organization of the available water resources, followed by an assessment of the factors determining the water flow. The observations related to the water flow parameters were analyzed in the third part of the study, including details about the parameters of liquid flow.


Apuseni mountains Water resources GIS Discharge 


  1. 1.
    Alboiu M, Nitulescu M, Paduraru A (1962) The drying up of the rivers from the Crișul Repede river basin (in Romanian), vol 3. Studii de hidrologie, BucureștiGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arghiuş V (2006) The study of flash floods from the Apuseni Mountains Eastern slope water courses and the associated risks (in Romanian), Casa Cărţii de Ştiinţă, Cluj-Napoca, 251pGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aznar-Sánchez JA, Belmonte-Ureña LJ, Velasco-Muñoz JF, Manzano-Agugliaro F (2018) Economic analysis of sustainable water use: a review of worldwide research. J Clean Prod 198:1120–1132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Batinaș R, Sorocovschi V, Șerban Gh (2002) Hydrological risk phenomena induced by the flash floods in the lower basin of the Arieş river (in Romanian). Seminarul Geografic “Dimitrie Cantemir”, nr 21–22, IașiGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bătinaş R (2010) The study of the surface waters quality in the Arieş river basin (in Romanian). Edit. Presa Universitară Clujeană, Cluj-NapocaGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bătinaş R, Şerban G, Sabău D, Rafan S (2016) Preliminary analysis on some physico-chemical rivers water features in Pricop-Huta-Certeze and Upper Tisa Natura 2000 Protected Areas. In: “Air and water—components of the environment” conference proceedings, Şerban Gh, Bătinaş R, Croitoru A, Holobâcă I, Horvath C, Tudose T (eds), 22–23 March, Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Geography, Cluj-Napoca, România, Edit. Casa Cărţii de Ştiinţă, pp 314–319Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bird G, Brewer P, Macklin M, Balteanu D, Serban M, Zaharia S. (2003) The impact and significance of metal mining activities on the environmental quality of Romanian River systems. In: Proceedings of the first international conference on environmental research and assessment, Bucharest, March 23–27, pp 316–332Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Blaney D (2014) Water resource management in a vulnerable world: the hydro-harzardscapes of climate change by Daanish Mustafa. Glob Environ Politics 14(1):138–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Borsos B, Sendzimir J (2018) The Tisza River: Managing a Lowland River in the Carpathian Basin. In book: Riverine Ecosystem ManagementCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Buta I, Iacob E (1967) The alluvial runoff on the rivers from the north-west of Romania (in Romanian). Studia Univ, Babeş-Bolyai, Cluj-NapocaGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Buz V (1976) Water balance in the Criș rivers basin (in Romanian). Studia Universitatis Geographia, Cluj-NapocaGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Choiński A, Ilyin L, Marszelewski W, Ptak M (2008) Lakes supplied by Springs: selected examples. Limnol Rev 8(4):145–150Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cocean P (2000) Apuseni Mountains. Karstic processes and forms (in Romanian) Ed. Academiei Române, BucureştiGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Corduneanu F, Vintu V, Balan I, Crenganis L, Bucur D (2016) Impact of drought on water resources in North-Eastern Romania. Case study-the Prut River. Environ Eng Manag Jurnal (EEMJ) 15(6)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Costan C (2010) Natural and technological risks in the middle basin of the Arieș river (in Romanian). Ph.D. thesis—manuscript, Universitatea Babes-Bolyai, Facultatea de Stiinta Mediului,
  16. 16.
    Crăciun A (2011) The indirect estimation, with the help of GIS, of the soil moisture, in the purpose of the rain floods modeling. Applications in Apuseni Mountains river (in Romanian). Ph.D. thesis—manuscript, Universitatea Babes-Bolyai, Facultatea de Geografie, Cluj-NapocaGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Diaconu D (2008) The Siriu reservoir, Buzău river (România), Lakes, reservoirs and ponds. Romanian J Limnol, 1–2:141–149Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Diaconu DC (2010) Management of storage lakes in Romania. Volumul Conferinței Aerul şi apa - Componente ale mediului. Presa Universitara Clujeană, pp 149–155Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Diaconu DC (2013) Water resources from Buzău river watershed (in Romanian). Editura Universitară, Bucureşti, 238pGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Diaconu DC, Mailat E (2010) The management of Reservoir Silting in Romania. In: 10th international multidisciplinary scientific geoconference SGEM, vol II, pp 105–112Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Drăgan M (2011). The resilience of the Apuseni Mountains regional system (in Romanian). Ph.D. thesis—manuscript, Universitatea Babes-Bolyai, Facultatea de Geografie, Cluj-NapocaGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Duma S (1998) Geoecologic study of the mining exploitations from the southern area of the Apuseni Mountains, Poiana Ruscă Mountains and Mountains of Sebeș (in Romanian). Editura Dacia, Cluj-NapocaGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dume DM (2009) Hydrotechnical improvements from Crișul Repede basin and their impact on the liquid flow (in Romanian). Ph.D. thesis—manuscript, Universitatea din Oradea, OradeaGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Forray FL (2002) Geochemistry of the environment in mining sites areas from the Arieş valley (Apuseni Mountains) (in Romanian). Ph.D. thesis—manuscript, Universitatea Babes-Bolyai, Catedra de Mineralogie, Cluj-Napoca, p 301Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gâştescu P (2003) Territorial distribution of water resources in Romania in terms of social-economic demand. Revue roumaine de géographie, tomes 47:48Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gâştescu P (2010) Water resources from Romania. Potential, quality, spatial distribution, management (in Romanian). În volumul „Resursele de apă din România – vulnerabilitate la presiunile antropice‟, Lucrările primului simpozion naţional de Limnogeografie, Editori Gâştescu, P., Breţcan, P., 11–13 iunie, Universitatea Valahia, Târgovişte, Edit. Transversal, pp 10–30Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gâștescu P (2012) Water resources in the Romanian Carpathians and their management. GEOREVIEW: Scientific Annals of Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava. Geogr Ser 21(2):9–10Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gyori M-M (2013) The flash floods prediction in the conditions of limited data. Application to the small rivers from the Zărand and Săvârșin mountains (in Romanian). PhD. thesis—manuscript, Universitatea Babes-Bolyai, Facultatea de Geografie, Cluj-NapocaGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Haidu I, Craciun AI, Bilasco St. (2007) The SCS-CN model assisted by GIS-alternative estimation of the hydric runoff in real time. Geographia Technica 1:1–7. ISSN 1842-5135Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Horvath C (2008) The study of the reservoirs from the upper basin of the Crişul Repede river (in Romanian). Editura Casa Cărţii de Ştiinţă, Cluj-Napoca, p 208Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Iacob E (1971) Apuseni Mountains, Hydrological Study (in Romanian), Ph.D. thesis—manuscript, Universitatea Babes-Bolyai, Facultatea de Biologie, Geografie și Geologie, Cluj-NapocaGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Konar M, Evans TP, Levy M, Scott CA, Troy TJ, Vörösmarty CJ, Sivapalan M (2016) Water resources sustainability in a globalizing world: who uses the water? Hydrol Process 30(18):3330–3336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lakshmi V, Fayne J, Bolten J (2018) A comparative study of available water in the major river basins of the world. J Hydrol 567:510–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lal R (2015) World water resources and achieving water security. Agron J 107(4):1526–1532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Li P, Qian H (2018) Water resource development and protection in loess areas of the world: a summary to the thematic issue of water in loess. Environ Earth Sci 77(24):796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Linzer HG, Frisch W, Zweigel P, Girbacea R, Hann HP, Moser F (1998) Kinematic evolution of the Romanian Carpathians. Tectonophysics 297(1–4):133–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mac I (1998) Documentation of certification of the Fântânele tourist resort like as eco-ethnographic resort (in Romanian). Plan de Urbanism Zonal, S.C. FACIL SERVCOM S.R.L. Cluj-NapocaGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mălai M (1983) Hydropower improvement of Someșul Mic river downstream of Tarnița dam (in Romanian). Hidrotehnica, 11, BucureştiGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mirchi A, Watkins DW, Huckins CJ, Madani K, Hjorth P (2014) Water resources management in a homogenizing world: averting the growth and underinvestment trajectory. Water Resour Res 50(9):7515–7526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Morariu T, Savu Al (1956) The hydrographic regions of Transylvania (in Romanian), Bulletin Știintific, Sectia Geologie-Geografie I.3-4 BucurestiGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mustafa D (2013) Water resource management in a vulnerable world: the hydro-hazardscapes of climate change. Philip Wilson PublishersGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Orăşeanu I (2016) The hydrogeology of karst from Apuseni Mountains (in Romanian). Edit, Belvedere, OradeaGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pandi G (1997) The energy conception of the suspension alluvium formation and transport: application in Nord-West of Romania (in Romanian). Presa Universitară Clujeană, Cluj-Napoca, 229pGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pavel M (1975) Drăgan hydropower improvement on Iad river (in Romanian). Hidrotehnica 2, BucurestiGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Piasecki A, Marszelewski W (2014) Dynamics and consequences of water level fluctuations of selected lakes in the catchment of the Ostrowo-Gopło Channel. Limnological Review 14(4):187–194. Scholar
  46. 46.
    Pop Gh (1970) Fărcaș smoothing surface from Gilău Mountains (in Romanian). Ph.D. thesis (manuscript), Universitatea Babeș-Bolyai, Cluj-NapocaGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pop Gr. (1996) Romania. Hydropower Geography (in Romanian), Edit. Presa Universitară ClujeanaGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pop Gr (1992) Hydropower improvements from the basin of Crișul Repede river (in Romanian). Studia Univ. Babeş-Bolyai, 1–2, Cluj-NapocaGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Popescu V, Florescu D (1976) Fântânele dam, solutions and technologies of building (in Romanian). Hidrotehnica, 6, BucureştiGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Posea A (1969) Winter phenomena in the basin of Crișul Repede river (in Romanian). Revista Terra, nr 1, BucureștiGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Posea A (1970) Hydrographic basin of Crișul Repede river (in Romanian) Ph.D. thesis—manuscript, Universitatea Babes-Bolyai, Facultatea de Biologie, Geografie și Geologie, Cluj-Napoca, 225pGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Romanescu G, Sandu I, Stoleriu C, Sandu IG (2014) Water resources in Romania and their quality in the main lacustrine basins. Rev Chim (Bucharest) 63(3):344–349Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rusu T (1988) Following undergound waters. The karst from Pădurea Craiului Mountains (in Romanian). Edit. Dacia, Cluj-NapocaGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Savin C (1990) Water resources from Jiu river major riverbed (in Romanian). Editura Scrisul Românesc, CraiovaGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Schreiber WE, Idu PD, Sorocovschi V, Ciangă N, Maier A, Stoia Ileana (1987) Landschaftsbeeinflussung durch hydroenergetische anlagen im oberen einzugsbecken des Someşu Mic - flusses. Studia Univ. Babeş-Bolyai, Geol.-Geogr., XXXII, 3, Cluj-NapocaGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Simionescu Al (1980a) The technology of excavation and concreting of the Mărișelu power plant cavern on Someşul Cald river (in Romanian). Hidrotehnica, 8, BucureştiGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Simionescu Al (1980b) Tarniţa dam. The technology of concreting (in Romanian). Hidrotehnica, 10, BucureştiGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Simionescu Al (1982) The organization and operation of the career from the Fântânele rocks dam (in Romanian). Hidrotehnica, 11, BucureştiGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Słyś D, Stec A, Zeleňáková M (2012) A LCC analysis of rainwater management variants. Ecol Chem Eng S 19(3):359–372Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sofronie C (2000) Hydrotechnical improvements in Someș-Tisa basin (in Romanian). Edit, Gloria, Cluj-NapocaGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sorocovschi V, Serban Gh, Batinas R (2002) Hydric risks in lower basin of Arieș river (in Romanian). Vol. “Riscuri si catastrofe”, I, Editor V.Sorocovschi, Edit. Casa Cartii de Stiinta, Cluj-NapocaGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sorocovschi, V., Şerban, Gh (2012) Elements of climatology and hydrology. Part II—hydrology. ID education form (in Romanian). Edit. Casa Cărţii de Ştiinţă, Cluj-Napoca, 242p Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Şerban Gh (2007) The reservoirs from Someșul Mic upper basin—hydrogeographic study (in Romanian). Presa Universitară Clujeană, Cluj-Napoca, EditGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Şerban Gh, Pandi G, Sima A (2012) The need for reservoir improvement in Vişeu river basin, with minimal impact on protected areas, in order to prevent flooding. Studia Univ. “Babeş-Bolyai”, Geographia, LVII, nr.1, Cluj-Napoca, pp 71–80Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Şerban Gh, Sabău A, Rafan S, Corpade C, Niţoaia A, Ponciş R (2016) Risks Induced by Maximum Flow with 1% Probability and Their Effect on Several Species and Habitats in Pricop-Huta-Certeze and Upper Tisa Natura 2000 Protected Areas. “Air and water—components of the environment” Conference Proceedings, Şerban Gh, Bătinaş R, Croitoru A, Holobâcă I, Horvath C, Tudose T (eds), 22–23 March, Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Geography, Cluj-Napoca, România, Edit. Casa Cărţii de Ştiinţă, pp. 58–69Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Teodosiu C, Barjoveanu G, Vinke-de Kruijf J (2013) Public participation in water resources management in Romania: issues, expectations and actual involvement. Environ Eng Manag J (EEMJ) 12(5)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ujvári I (1972) The geography of Romanian waters (in Romanian), Edit. Ştiinţifică, Bucureşti, 578pGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Woodward RT, Shaw WD (2008) Allocating resources in an uncertain world: water management and endangered species. Am J Agr Econ 90(3):593–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Zaharia L (1999) Water resources in Putna catchment. A hydrological study (in Romanian). Editura Universităţii din Bucureşti, 305pGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Zaharia L (2010) The Iron Gates reservoir—aspects concerning hydrological characteristics and water quality, Lakes, reservoirs and ponds. Romanian J Limnol 4(1–2):52–69Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Zaharia L (2005) Study on water resources in Curvature Carpathians and Subcarpathians area to optimize their use for the population supply (in Romanian), in the volume „Lucrări şi rapoarte de cercetare. Centrul de cercetare „Degradarea terenurilor si Dinamica geomorfologica‟, vol. I, Ed. Universităţii Bucureşti, pp 137–171Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Zeleňáková M, Hudáková G (2014) The concept of rainwater management in area of Košice region. Procedia Eng 89:1529–1536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Zeleňáková M, Markovič G, Kaposztásová D, Vranayová Z (2014) Rainwater management in compliance with sustainable design of buildings. Procedia Eng 89:1515–1521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    *** (1968) Geologic Map of Romania (in Romanian), 1:200000. Geologic Institute of Romania, Bucharest Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    *** (1971–1979) Soil map of R.S. Romania (in Romanian), 1:200000. ICPA, BucureştiGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    *** (1975) Romanian Groundwater Map (in Romanian). Geologic Institute of Romania, Bucharest.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    *** (1978–1982) Topographic map of Romania (in Romanian), 1:25000. Military Topographic Direction, BucharestGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    *** (1982) The Geographic Atlas of Romania (in Romanian). Ed. Didactică și Pedagogică, BucureștiGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    *** (1983) Geografia României, vol I, Edit. Academiei RSR, BucurestiGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    *** (1987) Geografia României, vol III, Edit. Academiei RSR, BucurestiGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    *** (1992) The Atlas of Water Cadastre of Romania (in Romanian). Ministry of Environment and Aquaproject S.A., Bucureşti, 683pGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    *** (2009) Sub-Basin Level Flood Action Plan Tisza River Basin. International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River—Flood Protection Expert Group, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Serbia, UkraineGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    *** (2013) Guide for the activity of hydrometric stations on rivers (in Romanian). N.I.H.W.M.—The National Institute of Hydrology and Water Management, BucharestGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
  85. 85.
    *** A.B.A.C. (2015) Planul de management al bazinului hidrografic Crișuri (C.W.B.A.—”Crișuri” Water Basin Administration—Hydrographic basin of Criș rivers management plan, in Romanian)Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    *** A.B.A.M. (2015) Planul de management al bazinului hidrografic Mureș (M.W.B.A.—”Mureș” Water Basin Administration—Hydrographic basin of Mureș river management plan, in Romanian)Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    *** A.B.A.S.T. (2015) Planul de management al spațiului hidrografic Someș-Tisa (S.T.W.B.A.—”Someș-Tisa” Water Basin Administration—Someș-Tisa hydrographic space management plan, in Romanian)Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    *** Records of R.W.N.A. (“Romanian Waters” National Administration—in Romanian)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    *** Records of S.T.W.B.A. (“Someș-Tisa” Water Basin Administration—in Romanian)Google Scholar
  90. 90.
  91. 91.
    ***(2008) Romanian Climate. National Administration of Meteorology, Edit. Academiei Române, Bucureşti (in Romanian)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    *** (1984) Popescu-Argeşel I, Arieş Valley, Edit. Sport-Turism, Bucureşti (in Romanian)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Răzvan Bătinaş
    • 1
  • Gheorghe Şerban
    • 1
    Email author
  • Daniel Sabӑu
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of GeographyBabeş-Bolyai UniversityCluj-NapocaRomania
  2. 2.“Romanian Waters” National Administration—“Someș-Tisa” Regional Water BranchCluj-NapocaRomania

Personalised recommendations