Advertisement

Epidemiology and Population Dynamics: Modelisation, Monitoring and Management

  • Geneviève MarchandEmail author
  • Philippe C. Nicot
  • Ramon Albajes
  • Odile Carisse
Chapter
  • 41 Downloads
Part of the Plant Pathology in the 21st Century book series (ICPP, volume 9)

Abstract

Understanding how populations of microbial pathogens and arthropod pests develop over time is critical for timely and effective intervention to control disease epidemics and pest infestations in agricultural production systems. Various elements including the pathogen or pest, host plant, natural enemies or competitors, environment, and human activity interact in complex ways, and some of these elements can be factored into mathematical models for pest population increase and disease progress. Greenhouse production affords a level of control over climate and growth environment, as well as the opportunity to release biological control agents, and thus the potential to influence pathogen and arthropod pest populations and their development to a much greater degree than in field production. To this end, thresholds for intervention must be derived based on the relationship between losses and yields weighed against the cost of intervention. In the context of integrated pest management, monitoring of pathogen and pest populations, as well as of the environment and the development of resistance to chemical pesticides such as fungicides and insecticides, is necessary to estimate the risk to the crop posed by these diseases and pests and to select the optimal method for their control.

Keywords

Greenhouse crops Plant disease Plant pathogens Arthropod pests Population biology Epidemiology Forecasting Monitoring Thresholds Integrated pest management 

References

  1. Abro MA, Lecompte F, Bryone F, Nicot PC (2013) Nitrogen fertilization of the host plant influences production and pathogenicity of Botrytis cinerea secondary inoculum. Phytopathology 103:261–267.  https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-08-12-0189-RCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abro MA, Lecompte F, Bardin M, Nicot PC (2014) Nitrogen fertilization impacts biocontrol of tomato gray mold. Agron Sustain Dev 34:641–648.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-013-0168-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agrios GN (2005) Plant pathology. Elsevier Academic Press, BurlingtonGoogle Scholar
  4. Albajes R, Madeira F (2018) Integrated pest management. In: Meyers RA (ed) Encyclopedia of sustainability science and technology, 2nd edn. Springer, New York, pp 10013–11578. USAGoogle Scholar
  5. Al-Kayssi AW (2009) Impact of elevated CO2 concentrations in the soil on soil solarization efficiency. Appl Soil Ecol 43:150–158.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2009.06.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Asalf B, Gadoury DM, Tronsmo AM, Seem RC, Dobson A, Peres NA, Stensvand A (2014) Ontogenic resistance of leaves and fruit, and how leaf folding influences the distribution of powdery mildew on strawberry plants colonized by Podosphaera aphanis. Phytopathology 104:954–963.  https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-12-13-0345-RCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baptista FJ, Bailey BJ, Meneses JF (2008) Comparison of humidity conditions in unheated tomato greenhouses with different natural ventilation management and implications for climate and Botrytis cinerea control. In: International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS), Leuven, Belgium, pp 1013–1020.  https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2008.801.120
  8. Barratt RW, Horsfall JG (1945) An improved grading system for measuring plant disease. Phytopathology 35:655Google Scholar
  9. Bechtold U, Karpinski S, Mullineaux PM (2005) The influence of the light environment and photosynthesis on oxidative signalling responses in plant–biotrophic pathogen interactions plant. Cell Environ 28:1046–1055.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.2005.01340.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ben-Noon E, Shtienberg D, Shlevin E, Dinoor A (2003) Joint action of disease control measures: a case study of alternaria leaf blight of carrot. Phytopathology 93:1320–1328.  https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO.2003.93.10.1320CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Berlinger MJ, Jarvis WR, Jewett TJ, Lebiush-Mordechi S (1999) Managing the greenhouse, crop and crop environment. In: Albajes R, Lodovica Gullino M, van Lenteren JC, Elad Y (eds) Integrated pest and disease management in greenhouse grops. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 97–123.  https://doi.org/10.1007/0-306-47585-5_8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bryson RJ, Sylvester-Bradley R, Scott RK, Paveley ND (1995) Reconciling the effects of yellow rust on yield of winter wheat through measurements of green leaf area and radiation interception. In: Physiological responses of plants to pathogens vol 42. Aspects of applied biology, pp 9–18Google Scholar
  13. Campbell CL, Madden LV (1990) Introduction to plant disease epidemiology. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Canessa P, Schumacher J, Hevia MA, Tudzynski P, Larrondo LF (2014) Assessing the effects of light on differentiation and virulence of the plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea: characterization of the white collar complex. PLoS One e84223:e84223Google Scholar
  15. Carisse O, Bouchard J (2010) Age-related susceptibility of strawberry leaves and berries to infection by Podosphaera aphanis. Crop Prot 29:969–978.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2010.03.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carisse O, Van der Heyden H (2015) Relationship of airborne Botrytis cinerea conidium concentration to tomato flower and stem infections: a threshold for de-leafing operations. Plant Dis 99:137–142.  https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-05-14-0490-RECrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Carisse O, Bourgeois G, Duthie JA (2000) Influence of temperature and leaf wetness duration on infection of strawberry leaves by Mycosphaerella fragariae. Phytopathology 90:1120–1125.  https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO.2000.90.10.1120CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Carisse O, Levasseur A, Van der Heyden H (2012) A new risk indicator for botrytis leaf blight of onion caused by Botrytis squamosa based on infection efficiency of airborne inoculum. Plant Pathol 61:1154–1164.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2012.02594.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carisse O, Lefebvre A, Van der Heyden H, Roberge L, Brodeur L (2013) Analysis of incidence–severity relationships for strawberry powdery mildew as influenced by cultivar, cultivar type, and production systems. Plant Dis 97:354–362.  https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-05-12-0508-RECrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Carisse O, Caffi T, Rossi V (2014) How to develop and validate plant disease forecasting systems. In: Stevenson KL, Jeger MJ (eds) Exercises in plant disease epidemiology, 2nd edn. APS Press, St. PaulGoogle Scholar
  21. Castilla N, Hernández J, Abou-Hadid AF (2004) Strategic crop and greenhouse management in mild winter climate areas. In: International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS), Leuven, Belgium, pp 183–196. doi: https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2004.633.22
  22. Choi HW, Hong SK, Kim WG, Lee YK (2011) First report of internal fruit rot of sweet pepper in Korea caused by Fusarium lactis. Plant Dis 95:1476–1476.  https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-03-11-0157CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cox TS, Glover JD, Van Tassel DL, Cox CM, De Haan LR (2006) Prospects for developing perennial grain crops. Bioscience 56:649–659.  https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2006)56[649:PFDPGC]2.0.CO;2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. De Souza VL, Café-Filho AC (2003) Resistance to Leveillula taurica in the genus Capsicum. Plant Pathol 52:613–619.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3059.2003.00920.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dent DR, Walton MP (1997) Methods in ecological and agricultural entomology. CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  26. Develey-Rivière M-P, Galiana E (2007) Resistance to pathogens and host developmental stage: a multifaceted relationship within the plant kingdom. New Phytol 175:405–416.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2007.02130.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Eden MA, Hill RA, Beresford R, Stewart A (1996) The influence of inoculum concentration, relative humidity, and temperature on infection of greenhouse tomatoes by Botrytis cinerea. Plant Pathol 45:795–806.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3059.1996.d01-163.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ehler LE (2006) Integrated pest management (IPM): definition, historical development and implementation, and the other IPM. Pest Manag Sci 62:787–789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ehret D, Lau A, Bittman S, Lin W, Shelford T (2001a) Automated monitoring of greenhouse crops. Agronomie 21:403–414.  https://doi.org/10.1051/agro:2001133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ehret DL, Alsanius B, Wohanka W, Menzies JG, Utkhede R (2001b) Disinfestation of recirculating nutrient solutions in greenhouse horticulture. Agronomie 21:323–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Evans AS (1976) Causation and disease: the Henle-Koch postulates revisited. Yale J Biol Med 49:175–195PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Fall ML, Van der Heyden H, Carisse O (2016) A quantitative dynamic simulation of Bremia lactucae airborne conidia concentration above a lettuce canopy. PLoS One 11:e0144573.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144573CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Finckh MR, Wolfe MS (2006) Diversification strategies. In: Cooke BM, Jones DG, Kaye B (eds) The epidemiology of plant diseases. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 269–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Flor HH (1955) Host-parasite interaction in flax rust - its genetics and other implications. Phytopathology 45:680–685Google Scholar
  35. Gardy JL, Loman NJ (2017) Towards a genomics-informed, real-time, global pathogen surveillance system. Nat Rev Genet 19:9.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg.2017.88CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Garrett KA, Nita M, De Wolf ED, Gomez L, Sparks AH (2009) Plant pathogens as indicators of climate change. In: Letcher T (ed) Climate change: observed impacts on planet earthCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gent DH, Mahaffee WF, McRoberts N, Pfender WF (2013) The use and role of predictive systems in disease management. Annu Rev Phytopathol 51:267–289.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-082712-102356CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gobeil-Richard M, Tremblay D-M, Beaulieu C, Van der Heyden H, Carisse O (2016) A pyrosequencing-based method to quantify genetic substitutions associated with resistance to succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor fungicides in Botrytis spp. populations. Pest Manag Sci 72:566–573.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.4026CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gossen BD, Carisse O, Kawchuk LM, Van Der Heyden H, McDonald MR (2014) Recent changes in fungicide use and the fungicide insensitivity of plant pathogens in Canada. Can J Plant Pathol 36:327–340.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07060661.2014.925506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Guerrero MM et al (2005) Biofumigation plus solarization efficacy for soil disinfestation in sweet pepper greenhouses in the southeast of Spain. In: International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS), Leuven, Belgium, pp 293-298.  https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2005.698.39
  41. Gullino ML, Garibaldi A (2012) Soil solarization under greenhouse conditions. In: Gamliel A, Katan J (eds) Soil solarization: theory and practice. IPM. The American Phytopathological Society, pp 187–191.  https://doi.org/10.1094/9780890544198.027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hirst JM (1952) An automatic volumetric spore trap. Ann Appl Biol 39:257–265.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.1952.tb00904.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hoffland E, Jeger MJ, van Beusichem ML (2000) Effect of nitrogen supply rate on disease resistance in tomato depends on the pathogen. Plant Soil 218:239–247.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1014960507981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Idriss MH, El-Meniawi FA, Rawash IA, Soliman AM (2015) Effects of different fertilization levels of tomato plants on population density and biometrics of the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)(Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae) under greenhouse conditions. Sciences 5:759–768Google Scholar
  45. Islam MN, Hasanuzzaman ATM, Zhang Z-F, Zhang Y, Liu T-X (2017) High level of nitrogen makes tomato plants releasing less volatiles and attracting more Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Front Plant Sci 8:466.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.00466CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. James WC (1983) Crop loss assessment. In: Plant pathologist’s pocketbook, 2nd edn. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, pp 130–143Google Scholar
  47. Jarosz AM, Davelos AL (1995) Effects of disease in wild plant populations and the evolution of pathogen aggressiveness. New Phytol 129:371–387.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1995.tb04308.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jeger MJ (2004) Analysis of disease progress as a basis for evaluating disease management practices. Annu Rev Phytopathol 42:61–82.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.phyto.42.040803.140427CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Kranz J (1974) Comparison of epidemics. Annu Rev Phytopathol 12:355–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kranz J (1988) Measuring plant disease. In: Kranz J, Rotem J (eds) Experimental techniques in plant disease epidemiology. Springer, Berlin, pp 35–50.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-95534-1_4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kuldau GA, Yates IE (2000) Evidence for Fusarium endophytes in cultivated and wild plants. In: Bacon CW, White J (eds) Microbial endophytes. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 85–117Google Scholar
  52. Large EC (1945) Field trials of copper fungicides for the control of potato blight I. Foliage protection and yield. Ann Appl Biol 32:319–329.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.1945.tb06263.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Large EC (1952) The interpretation of progress curves for potato blight and other plant diseases. Plant Pathol 1:109–117.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3059.1952.tb00044.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lebeda A et al (2014) Resistance mechanisms of wild tomato germplasm to infection of Oidium neolycopersici. Eur J Plant Pathol 138:569–596.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-013-0307-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Madden LV, Nutter FWJ (1995) Modeling crop losses at the field scale. Can J Plant Pathol 17:124–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Madden LV, Hughes G, Fvd B (2007) The study of plant disease epidemics. American Phytopathological Society (APS Press), St. PaulGoogle Scholar
  57. Mahlein A-K (2016) Plant disease detection by imaging sensors – parallels and specific demands for precision agriculture and plant phenotyping. Plant Dis 100:241–251.  https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-03-15-0340-FECrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Massart S, Martinez-Medina M, Jijakli MH (2015) Biological control in the microbiome era: challenges and opportunities. Biol Control 89:98–108.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2015.06.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Miller TC, Gubler WD, Geng S, Rizzo DM (2003) Effects of temperature and water vapor pressure on conidial germination and lesion expansion of Sphaerotheca macularis f. sp. fragariae. Plant Dis 87:484–492.  https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS.2003.87.5.484CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Mitchell CE, Reich PB, Tilman D, Groth JV (2003) Effects of elevated CO2, nitrogen deposition, and decreased species diversity on foliar fungal plant disease. Glob Chang Biol 9:438–451.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2486.2003.00602.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nelson EB (2004) Microbial dynamics and interactions in the spermosphere. Annu Rev Phytopathol 42:271–309.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.phyto.42.121603.131041CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Nicot PC et al (2012) Manipulating nitrogen fertilization for the management of diseases in the tomato greenhouse: what perspectives for IPM? IOBC WPRS Bull 80:333–338Google Scholar
  63. Nürnberger T, Lipka V (2005) Non-host resistance in plants: new insights into an old phenomenon. Mol Plant Pathol 6:335–345.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1364-3703.2005.00279.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Nutter FW Jr, Teng PS, Shokes FM (1991) Disease assessment terms and concepts. Plant Dis 75:1187–1188Google Scholar
  65. Nutter FW Jr, Teng PS, Royer MH (1993) Terms and concepts for yield, crop loss, and disease thresholds. Plant Dis 77:211–215Google Scholar
  66. Patel JS, Zhang S, McGrath MT (2016) Red light increases suppression of downy mildew in basil by chemical and organic products. J Phytopathol 164:1022–1029.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jph.12523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Preece JE (2003) A century of progress with vegetative plant propagation. HortScience 38:1015–1025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Prenger JJ, Ling PP (2001) Greenhouse condensation control: understanding and using vapor pressure deficit (VPD) vol AEX-804Google Scholar
  69. Richards FJ (1959) A flexible growth function for empirical use. J Exp Bot 10:290–301.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/10.2.290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Robin M-H, Colbach N, Lucas P, Montfort F, Cholez C, Debaeke P, Aubertot J-N (2013) Injury profile SIMulator, a qualitative aggregative modelling framework to predict injury profile as a function of cropping practices, and abiotic and biotic environment. II. Proof of concept: design of IPSIM-wheat-eyespot. PLoS One 8:e75829.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075829CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Roden LC, Ingle RA (2009) Lights, rhythms, infection: the role of light and the circadian clock in determining the outcome of plant–pathogen interactions. Plant Cell 21:2546–2552.  https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.109.069922CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Savary S, Teng PS, Willocquet L, Forrest W, Nutter J (2006) Quantification and modeling of crop losses: a review of purposes. Annu Rev Phytopathol 44:89–112.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.phyto.44.070505.143342CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Shaner G, Finney RE (1977) The effect of nitrogen fertilization on the expression of slow-mildewing resistance in Knox wheat. Phytopathology 67:1051–1056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sharabani G et al (2013) Effects of plant age on disease development and virulence of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis on tomato. Plant Pathol 62:1114–1122.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ppa.12013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Shtienberg D, Elad Y (1997) Incorporation of weather forecasting in integrated, biological-chemical management of Botrytis cinerea. Phytopathology 87:332–340.  https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO.1997.87.3.332CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Snoeijers SS, Pérez-García A, Joosten MHAJ, De Wit PJGM (2000) The effect of nitrogen on disease development and gene expression in bacterial and fungal plant pathogens. Eur J Plant Pathol 106:493–506.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008720704105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Swartzberg D, Kirshner B, Rav-David D, Elad Y, Granot D (2008) Botrytis cinerea induces senescence and is inhibited by autoregulated expression of the IPT gene. Eur J Plant Pathol 120:289–297.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-007-9217-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Teng PS (1987) Crop loss assessment and pest management. APS Press, St. PaulGoogle Scholar
  79. Tokuno A, Ibaraki Y, Ito S-I, Araki H, Yoshimura K, Osaki K (2012) Disease suppression in greenhouse tomato by supplementary lighting with 405 nm LED. Environ Control Biol 50:19–29.  https://doi.org/10.2525/ecb.50.19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Vallance J, Déniel F, Le Floch G, Guérin-Dubrana L, Blancard D, Rey P (2011) Pathogenic and beneficial microorganisms in soilless cultures. Agron Sustain Dev 31:191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Van der Heyden H, Dutilleul P, Brodeur L, Carisse O (2014) Spatial distribution of single-nucleotide polymorphisms related to fungicide resistance and implications for sampling. Phytopathology 104:604–613.  https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-03-13-0085-RCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Vanderplank EJ (1963) Plants diseases: epidemiology and control. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  83. West JS, Kimber RBE (2015) Innovations in air sampling to detect plant pathogens. Ann Appl Biol 166:4–17.  https://doi.org/10.1111/aab.12191CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Willocquet L, Savary S, Fernandez L, Elazegui F, Teng P (2000) Development and evaluation of a multiple-pest, production situation specific model to simulate yield losses of rice in tropical Asia. Ecol Model 131:133–159.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3800(00)00271-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Willocquet L, Aubertot JN, Lebard S, Robert C, Lannou C, Savary S (2008) Simulating multiple pest damage in varying winter wheat production situations. Field Crops Res 107:12–28.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2007.12.013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Xu X (2006) Modelling and interpreting disease progress in time. In: Cooke BM, Jones DG, Kaye B (eds) The epidemiology of plant diseases. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 215–238.  https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-4581-6_8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Yunis H, Elad Y, Mahrer Y (1991) Influence of fungicidal control of cucumber and tomato grey mould (Botrytis cinerea) on fruit yield. Pestic Sci 31:325–335.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.2780310307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Zadoks JC (1985) On the conceptual basis of crop loss assessment: the threshold theory. Annu Rev Phytopathol 23:455–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Zadoks JC, Schein RD (1979) Epidemiology and plant disease management. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  90. Zarei M (2017) Advances in point-of-care technologies for molecular diagnostics. Biosens Bioelectron 98:494–506.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2017.07.024CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Geneviève Marchand
    • 1
    Email author
  • Philippe C. Nicot
    • 2
  • Ramon Albajes
    • 3
  • Odile Carisse
    • 4
  1. 1.Agriculture and Agri-Food CanadaHarrow Research and Development CentreHarrowCanada
  2. 2.Plant Pathology UnitINRAEMontfavetFrance
  3. 3.University of Lleida, Agrotecnio CenterLleidaSpain
  4. 4.Agriculture and Agri-Food CanadaSt-Jean-sur-Richelieu Research and Development CentreSaint-Jean-sur-RichelieuCanada

Personalised recommendations