IPM for Protecting Leafy Vegetables Under Greenhouses

  • Benjamin GardEmail author
  • Giovanna Gilardi
Part of the Plant Pathology in the 21st Century book series (ICPP, volume 9)


Leafy vegetables are a major production under greenhouses during winter season, grouping different species such as lettuce, chicory and spinach. Leafy vegetable are often consumed fresh, thus presentation quality of the product is of great importance. In this context, crop protection must resolve the challenging equation of a clean, undamaged product with a minimum or no pesticide use at all to preserve environment and human health. IPM strategies for protecting leafy vegetables must meet this challenge.

This chapter presents the main diseases and pests attacking leaf vegetables, with their localization on the plant and the description of the symptoms. This presentation should help the diagnosis. Then, we presented different levers that can be combined in an IPM strategy. These levers are classified in different categories, levers related to cultural practices, to soilborne pests and diseases and to airborne pests and diseases. A short description of each lever is provided, with, where applicable, an illustration of implementation and efficacy of the lever.

This chapter lists non-chemical crop protection techniques, from very well known to more recent and not yet fully adopted by the grower, that should constitute the basis to build efficient IPM strategies for leafy vegetables production.


Crop protection Cultural practices Pests diseases management Pesticide reduction Alternative techniques IPM strategies 


  1. Alcon F, Garcia-Martinez MC, De-Miguel MD et al (2010) Adoption of soilless cropping systems in Mediterranean Greenhouses: an application of duration analysis. Hortic Sci 45(2):248–253Google Scholar
  2. Alsanius B, Dorais M, Doyle O (2016) Potential food hazards from organic greenhouse horticulture. BioGreenhouse COST ACTION FA 1105. Available at: 59-factsheets/52-factsheets-food-safety/58-high-resolution
  3. Armstrong GM, Armstrong JK (1976) Common hosts for Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae and Fusarium oxysporum f sp betae. Phytopathology 66:542–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barrière V, Lecompte F, Nicot PC et al (2013) Lettuce cropping with less pesticides. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 34:175–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barrière V, Lecompte F, Lescourret F (2015) Efficacy of pest and pathogen control, yield and quality of winter lettuce crops managed with reduced pesticide applications. Eur J Agron 71:34–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bashan Y, de-Bashan YE, Prabhu SR et al (2014) Advances in plant growth-promoting bacterial inoculant technology: formulations and practical perspectives. Plant Soil 378:1–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blancard D (2013) Identifier les maladies et les ravageurs Available via E-phytia. Accessed 12 Apr 2018
  8. Blok C (2016) Compost for soil application and compost for growing media. In: van der Wurff AWG, Fuchs JG, Raviv M, Termorshuizen AJ (eds) Handbook for composting and compost use in organic horticulture. BioGreenhouse COST Action FA 1105. Available via Organic Eprints. Accessed 18 Apr 2018
  9. Blok WJ, Lamers JG, Termorshuizen AJ, Bollen GJ et al (2000) Control of soilborne plant pathogens by incorporating fresh organic amendments followed by tarping. Phytopathology 90:253–259PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bonanomi G, Antignani V, Pane C et al (2007) Suppression of soilborne fungal diseases with organic amendments. J Plant Pathol 89:311–324Google Scholar
  11. Bonanomi G, Antignani V, Capodilupo M et al (2010) Identifying the characteristics of organic soil amendments that suppress soilborne plant diseases. Soil Biol Biochem 42(2):136–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chitarra W, Decastelli L, Garibaldi A et al (2014) Potential uptake of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes from growth substrate into leaves of salad plants and basil grown in soil irrigated with contaminated water. Int J Food Microbiol 189:139–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Claerbout J, Venneman S, Vandevelde I et al (2018) First report of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae race 4 on lettuce in Belgium. Plant Dis 102:1037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Coffey MD, Ouimette DG (1989) Phosphonates: antifungal compounds against Oomycetes. In: Boddy L, Marchant R, Read DJ (eds) Nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfur utilization by Fungi. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 107–129Google Scholar
  15. Cohen S, Ziv G, Grava A et al (2006) Influence of polyethylene mulch on night microclimate, dew point and Phytophthora infestans infection in non-heated tomato greenhouses in southern Israel. Acta Hortic 718:277–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cohen Y, Rubin AE, Kilfin G (2010) Mechanisms of induced resistance in lettuce against Bremia lactucae by DL-β-amino-butyric acid (BABA). Eur J Plant Pathol 126:553–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Collange B, Navarrete M, Peyre G et al (2011) Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne) management in vegetable crop production: the challenge of an agronomic system analysis. Crop Prot 30:1251–1262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Collange B, Navarrete M, Peyre G et al (2014) Alternative cropping systems can have contrasting effects on various soil-borne diseases: relevance of a systemic analysis in vegetable cropping systems. Crop Prot 55:7–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Correll JC, Morelock TE, Black MC et al (1994) Economically important diseases of spinach. Plant Dis 78(7):653–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Correll JC, Bluhm BH, Feng C et al (2011) Spinach: better management of downy mildew and white rust through genomics. Eur J Plant Pathol 129(2):193–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cummings JA, Miles CA, du Toit LJ (2009) Greenhouse evaluation of seed and drench treatments for organic management of soilborne pathogens of spinach. Plant Dis 93:1281–1292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. De Meyer G, Bigirimana J, Elad Y et al (1998) Induced systemic resistance in Trichoderma harzianum T39 biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea. Eur J Plant Pathol 104:279–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Deliopoulos T, Kettlewell PS, Hare MC (2010) Fungal disease suppression by inorganic salts: a review. Crop Prot 29:1059–1075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Diaz BM, Biurrun R, Moreno A et al (2006) Impact of ultraviolet blocking plastic films on insect vectors of virus diseases infesting crisp lettuce. Hortic Sci 41:711–716Google Scholar
  25. Djian-Caporalino C (2012) Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), a growing problem in French vegetable crops. EPPO Bull 42:127–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. du Toit LJ, Hernandez-Perez P (2005) Efficacy of hot water and chlorine for eradication of Cladosporium variabile, Stemphylium botryosum, and Verticillium dahliae from spinach seed. Plant Dis 89:1305–1312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Elad Y (2000) Changes in disease epidemics on greenhouse grown crops. Acta Hortic 534:213–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Escuadra GME, Amemiya Y (2008) Suppression of Fusarium wilt of spinach with compost amendments. J Gen Plant Pathol 74:267–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. European Commission (2009a) A Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 of the European parliament and of the council of 21 October 2009 concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market and repealing council directives 79/117/EEC and 91/414/EECGoogle Scholar
  30. European Commission (2009b) Directive 2009/128/EC of the European parliament and of the council of 21 October 2009 establishing a framework for community action to achieve the sustainable use of pesticidesGoogle Scholar
  31. Fagan LL, McLachlan A, Till CM et al (2010) Synergy between chemical and biological control in the IPM of currant-lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribisnigri) in Canterbury, New Zealand. Bull Entomol Res 100(2):217–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Farrara BF, Ilott TW, Michelmore RW (1987) Genetic analysis of factors for resistance to downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) in species of lettuce (Lactuca sativa and L. serriola). Plant Pathol 36(4):499–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Feng C, Correll JC, Kammeijer KE et al (2014) Identification of new races and deviating strains of the spinach downy mildew pathogen Peronospora farinosa f. sp. spinaciae. Plant Dis 98:145–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fernández-Bayo JD, Randall TE, Harrold DR et al (2018) Effect of management of organic wastes on inactivation of Brassica nigra and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lactucae using soil biosolarization. Pest Manag Sci 74:1892–1902PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ferrocino I, Gilardi G, Pugliese M et al (2014) Shifts in ascomycete community of bisolarizated substrate infested with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans and F. oxysporum f. sp. basilici by PCR-DGGE. Appl Soil Ecol 81:12-21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Flint ML (1987) Integrated pest management for cole crops and lettuce, Publication no. 3307.IPM manual group of the Statewide IPM Project. University of California, DavisGoogle Scholar
  37. Franco-Ortega S, Tomlinson J, Gilardi G et al (2018) Rapid detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae on soil, lettuce seeds and plants using loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Plant Pathol 67:1462–1473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Frenkel O, Jaiswal AK, Elad Y et al (2017) The effect of biochar on plant diseases: what should we learn while designing biochar substrates? J Environ Eng Landsc 25:105–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fujinaga M, Ogiso H, Shinohara H et al (2005) Phylogenetic relationships between the lettuce root rot pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae races 1, 2, and 3 based on the sequence of the intergenic spacer region of its ribosomal DNA. J Gen Plant Pathol 71:402–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gamliel A (2018) Soil and substrate health. In: Gullino ML, Albajes R, van Lenteren J, Nicot P (eds) Integrated pest and disease management in greenhouse crops, 2nd edn. Springer, Dordrecht, pp XX–XXGoogle Scholar
  41. Gamliel A, Stapleton JJ (1993) Effect of soil amendment with chicken compost or ammonium phosphate and solarization on pathogen control, rhizosphere microorganisms and lettuce growth. Plant Dis 77:886–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gamliel A, van Bruggen AHC (2016) Maintaining soil health for crop production in organic greenhouses. Sci Hortic 208:120–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Garibaldi A, Gilardi G, Gullino ML (2006) Evidence for an expanded host range of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. raphani. Phytoparasitica 34:115–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Garibaldi A, Gilardi G, Clematis F et al (2010) Effect of green Brassica manure and Brassica defatted seed meals in combination with grafting and soil solarization against verticillium Verticillium wilt of eggplant and fusarium Fusarium wilt of lettuce and basil. Acta Hortic 883:295–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Garibaldi A, Gilardi G, Cogliati EE et al (2011) Silicon and increased electrical conductivity reduce downy mildew of soilless grown lettuce. Eur J Plant Pathol 132:123–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gatch EW, du Toit J (2015) A soil bioassy for predicting the risk of spinach fusarium wilt. Plant Dis 99:512–526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gent DH, Mahaffee WF, McRoberts N et al (2013) The use and role of predictive systems in disease management. Annu Rev Phytopathol 51:267–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gilardi G, Chen G, Garibaldi A et al (2007) Resistance of different rocket cultivars to wilt caused by strains of Fusarium oxysporum under artificial inoculation conditions. J Plant Pathol 89:113–117Google Scholar
  49. Gilardi G, Demarchi S, Gullino ML et al (2014a) Varietal resistance to control Fusarium wilts of leafy vegetables under greenhouse. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci 79:21–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Gilardi G, Demarchi S, Gullino ML et al (2014b) Effect of simulated soil solarization and organic amendments on fusarium wilt of rocket and basil under controlled conditions. J Phytopathol 162:557–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gilardi G, Demarchi S, Gullino ML et al (2015) Management of leaf spot of wild rocket using fungicides, resistance inducers and a biocontrol agent, under greenhouse conditions. Crop Prot 71:39–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gilardi G, Demarchi S, Gullino ML et al (2016a) Evaluation of the short term effect of nursery treatments with phosphite-based products, acibenzolar-S-methyl, pelleted Brassica carinata and biocontrol agents, against lettuce and cultivated rocket fusarium wilt under artificial inoculation and greenhouse conditions. Crop Prot 85:23–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gilardi G, Pugliese M, Gullino ML et al (2016b) Effect of different organic amendments on lettuce fusarium wilt and on selected soil-borne microorganisms. Plant Pathol 65:704–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gilardi G, Franco-Ortega S, van Rijswick P et al (2017a) A new race of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lactucae of lettuce. Plant Pathol 66:677–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gilardi G, Pons C, Gard B et al (2017b) Presence of fusarium wilt, incited by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lactucae, on lettuce in France. Plant Dis 101:1053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gilardi G, Franco-Ortega S, Gullino ML et al (2018a) First report of leaf spot of spinach caused by Stemphylium beticola in Italy. Plant Dis. Scholar
  57. Gilardi G, Gullino ML, Garibaldi A (2018b) Emerging foliar and soil-borne pathogens of leafy vegetable crops: a possible threat to Europe. EPPO Bull 48:116–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gilardi G, Garibaldi A, Matic S et al (2019) First Report of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae Race 4 on Lettuce in Italy. Plant Dis 103: Scholar
  59. Godard JF, Ziadi S, Monot C et al (1999) Benzothiadiazole (BTH) induces resistance in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) to downy mildew of crucifers caused by Peronospora parasitica. Crop Prot 18:397–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Goillon C, Mateille T, Tavoillot J et al (2016) Utiliser le sorgho pour lutter contre les nématodes à galles. PHYTOMA 698:39–34Google Scholar
  61. Gomes LAA, Maluf WR, Campos VP (2000) Inheritance of the resistant reaction of the lettuce cultivar `Grand Rapids’ to the southern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood. Euphytica 114(1):37–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Graber ER, Frenkel O, Jaiswal AK, Elad Y et al (2014) How may biochar influence severity of diseases caused by soilborne pathogens? Carbon Manag 5:169–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Grube R, Ryder E (2004) Identification of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) germplasm with genetic resistance to drop caused by Sclerotinia minor. J Am Soc Hortic 129:70–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Gullino ML, Gilardi G, Garibaldi A (2014) Seed-borne pathogens of leafy vegetable crops. In: Gullino ML, Munkvold G (eds) Global perspectives on the health of seeds and plant propagation material. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 47–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Gullino ML, Pugliese M, Garibaldi A (2015) Use of silicon amendments against foliar and vascular diseases of vegetables grown soil-less. In: Sangeetha G, Kurucheve V, Jayaraj J (eds) Sustainable crop disease management using natural products. Cabi, Delémont, pp 293–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Gullino ML, Pugliese M, Gilardi G et al (2018) A climate change and plant diseases: a critical appraisal of results obtained from studies carried out in phytotrons. J Plant Pathol 100(3): 371–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Gullino ML, Gilardi G, Garibaldi G (2019) Ready-to-eat salad crops: a plant Pathogen’s heaven. Plant Dis 103(9):2153–2170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hao J, Subbarao KV, Koike ST (2003) Effects of broccoli rotation on lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia minor and on the population density of sclerotia in soil. Plant Dis 87(2):159–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hasing JE, Motsenbocker CE, Monlezun CJ (2004) Agroeconomic effect of soil solarization on fall-planted lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Sci Hortic 101(3):223–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hopper JV, Nelson EH, Daane KM et al (2011) Growth, development and consumption by four syrphid species associated with the lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, in California. Biol Control 58:271–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Howell CR (2003) Mechanisms employed by Trichoderma species in the biological control of plant diseases: the history and evolution of current concepts. Plant Dis 87:4–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Huber DM, Thompson IA (2007) Nitrogen and plant disease. In: Datnoff LE, Elmer WH, Huber DM (eds) Mineral nutrition and plant disease. APS Press, St Paul, pp 31–44Google Scholar
  73. Isman MB (2000) Plant essential oils for pest and disease management. Crop Prot 19:603–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Janvier C, Villeneuve F, Alabouvette C et al (2007) Soil health through soil disease suppression: which strategy from descriptors to indicators? Soil Biol Biochem 39(1):1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Jones EE, Whipps JM (2002) Effect of inoculum rates and sources of Coniothyrium minitans on control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum disease in glasshouse lettuce. Eur J Plant Pathol 108(6):527–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Jones JP, Engelhard AW, Woltz SS (1989) Management of Fusarium wilt of vegetables and ornamentals by macro-and microelement nutrition. In: Engelhard AW (ed) Soilborne plant pathogens: management of diseases with macro-and microelements. APS Press, St. Paul, pp p18–p32Google Scholar
  77. Katan J (2017) Diseases caused by soilborne pathogens: biology, management and challenges. J Plant Pathol 99:305–315Google Scholar
  78. Katan J, Gamliel A (2012) Soil solarization for the management of soilborne pests: the challenges, historical perspective, and principles. In: Gamliel A, Katan J (eds) Soil Solarization: theory and practice. APS Press, St Paul, pp 45–52Google Scholar
  79. Kim KH, Yi CG, Ahn YJ et al (2015) Fumigant toxicity of basil oil compounds and related compounds to Thrips palmi and Orius strigicollis. Pest Manag Sci 71(9):1292–1296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Klein E, Katan J, Gamliel A (2011) Soil suppressiveness to fusarium disease following organic amendments and solarization. Plant Dis 95:1116–1123PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Koch E, Roberts SJ (2014) Non-chemical seed treatment in the control of seed-borne pathogens. In: Gullino M, Munkvold G (eds) Global perspectives on the health of seeds and plant propagation material, Plant Pathology in the 21st Century (Contributions to the 9th International Congress), vol 6. Springer, Dordrecht, pp p105–p123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kotsou M, Mari I, Lasaridi K, Chatzipavlidis I, Balis C, Kyriacou A (2004) The effect of olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) on soil microbial communities and suppressiveness against Rhizoctonia solani. Appl Soil Ecol 26:113–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Koul O, Walia S, Dhaliwal GS (2008) Essential oils as green pesticides: potential and constraints. Biopesti Int 4:63–84Google Scholar
  84. Lamichhane JR, Aubertot JN, Begg G et al (2016a) Networking of integrated pest management: a powerful approach to address common challenges in agriculture. Crop Prot 89:139–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lamichhane JR, Dachbrodt-Saaydeh S, Kudsk P et al (2016b) Toward a reduced reliance on conventional pesticides in European agriculture. Plant Dis 100:10–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Leadbeater A, Gisi U (2010) The challenges of chemical control of plant diseases. In: Gisi U, Chet I, Gullino ML (eds) Recent developments in management of plant diseases, Plant Pathology in the 21st Century (Contributions to the 9th International Congress), vol 1. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 3–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lebeda A, Schwinn FJ (1994) The downy mildews – an overview of recent research progress. J Plant Dis Prot 101:225–254Google Scholar
  88. Lebeda A, Dolezalová I, Feráková V et al (2004) Geographical distribution of wild Lactuca species (Asteraceae, Lactuceae). Bot Rev 70:328–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lebeda A, Křístková E, Kitner M et al (2014) Wild Lactuca species, their genetic diversity, resistance to diseases and pests, and exploitation in lettuce breeding. Eur J Plant Pathol 138:597–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lecompte F, Abro MA, Nicot PC (2013) Can plant sugars mediate the effect of nitrogen fertilization on lettuce susceptibility to two necrotrophic pathogens: Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum? Plant Soil 369:387–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Legarrea S, Diaz BM, Plaza M et al (2012) Diminished UV radiation reduces the spread and population density of Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) [Hemiptera: Aphididae] in lettuce crops. Hortic Sci 39(2):74–80Google Scholar
  92. Leskovar DI, Kolenda K (2002) Strobilurin+acibenzolar-S-methyl controls white rust without inducing leaf chlorosis in spinach. Ann Appl Biol 140:171–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Lopez-Reyes JG, Gilardi G, Garibaldi A et al (2014) Efficacy of bacterial and fungal biocontrol agents as seed treatments against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae on lettuce. J Plant Pathol 96:535–539Google Scholar
  94. Lopez-Reyes JG, Gilardi G, Garibaldi A, Gullino ML (2016) In vivo evaluation of essential oils and biocontrol agents combined with heat treatments on basil cv Genovese gigante seeds against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. basilici. Phytoparasitica 44:35–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lu P, Gilardi G, Gullino ML, Garibaldi A (2010) Biofumigation with Brassica plants and its effect on the inoculum potential of Fusarium yellow of Brassica crops. Eur J Plant Pathol 126:387–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Lumsden RD, Lewis JA, Milner PD (1983) Effect of composted sewage sludge on several soilborne pathogens and diseases. Phytopathology 73:1543–1548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Lynch J, Wilson K, Ousley M et al (1991) Response of lettuce to Trichoderma treatment. Lett Appl Microbiol 12:59–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Maisonneuve B (2003) Lactuca virosa, a source of disease resistance genes for lettuce breeding: results and difficulties for gene introgression. In: van Hintum ThJL, Lebeda A, Pink D et al (eds) Eucarpia leafy vegetables, pp 61–67Google Scholar
  99. Maisonneuve B, Allen-Aubouard C, Pitrat M (2013) Effect of plant genotype on the efficacy of stimulators of plant defences in two horticultural pathosystems. IOBC/WPRS Bull 89:327–331Google Scholar
  100. Matheron ME, Gullino ML (2012) CHAPTER 17: Fusarium wilts of lettuce and other salad crops. In: Gullino ML, Katan J, Garibaldi A (eds) Fusarium wilts of greenhouse vegetable and ornamental crops. APS press, St Paul, pp 175–183Google Scholar
  101. Matheron ME, Porchas M (2010) Evaluation of soil solarization and flooding as management tools for Fusarium wilt of lettuce. Plant Dis 94:1323–1328PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. Matthiessen JN, Kirkegaard JA (2006) Biofumigation and enhanced biodegradation: opportunity and challenge in soilborne pest and disease management. Crit Rev Plant Sci 25:235–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Mazzola M, Reardon CL, Brown J (2012) Initial Pythium species composition and Brassicaceae seed meal type influence extent of Pythium-induced plant growth suppression in soil. Soil Biol Biochem 48:20–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Metha CM, Palni U, Franke-Whittle IH et al (2014) Compost: its role, mechanism and impact on reducing soil-borne plant diseases. Waste Manag 34:607–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Moonen AC, Bàrberi P (2008) Functional biodiversity: an agroecosystem approach. Agric Ecosyst Environ 127(1–2):7–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Morales I, Diaz BM, De Mendoza AH et al (2013) The development of an economic threshold for Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on lettuce in central Spain. J Econ Entomol 106(2):891–898PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. Mowlick S, Yasukawa H, Inoue T et al (2013) Suppression of spinach wilt disease by biological soil disinfestation incorporated with Brassica juncea plants in association with changes in soil bacterial communities. Crop Prot 54:185–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Munkvold GP (2009) Seed pathology progress in academia and industry. Annu Rev Phytopathol 47:285–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Navarrete M, Djian-Caporalino C, Mateille T et al (2016) A resistant pepper used as a trap cover crop in vegetable production strongly decreases root-knot nematode infestation in soil. Agron Sustain Dev 36:68. Scholar
  110. Neergaard P (1958) Infection of Danish seeds by Rhizoctonia solani Kuehn. Plant Dis Rep 43:1276–1278Google Scholar
  111. Nega E, Ulrich R, Werner S et al (2003) Hot water treatment of vegetable seed – an alternative seed treatment method to control seed-borne pathogens in organic farming. J Plant Dis Prot 110(3):220–234Google Scholar
  112. Nieto A, Gasco G, Paz-Ferreiro J, Fernandez JM et al (2016) The effect of pruning waste and biochar addition on brown peat based growing media properties. Sci Hortic 199:142–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Noble R, Coventry E (2005) Suppression of soil-borne plant diseases with composts: a review. Biocontrol Sci Technol 15:3–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. O’Callaghan M (2016) Microbial inoculation of seed for improved crop performance: issues and opportunities. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 100:5729–5746PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Okon Levy N, Meller Harel Y, Haile ZM et al (2014) Induced resistance to foliar diseases by soil solarization and Trichoderma harzianum. Plant Pathol 64:365–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Ousley M, Lynch J, Whipps J (1993) Effect of Trichoderma on plant growth: a balance between inhibition and growth promotion. Microb Ecol 26:277–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Palumbo JC, Castle SJ (2009) IPM for fresh-market lettuce production in the desert Southwest: the produce paradox. Pest Manag Sci 65:1311–1320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Pane C, Villecco D, Pentangelo A (2012) Integration of soil solarization with Brassica carinata seed meals amendment in a greenhouse lettuce production system. Acta Agr Scand B-S P 62(4):291–299Google Scholar
  119. Patrício FRA, Sinigaglia C, Barros BC et al (2006) Solarization and fungicides for the control of drop, bottom rot and weeds in lettuce. Crop Prot 25(1):31–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Ponce AG, del Valle CE, Roura SI (2004) Natural essential oils as reducing agents of peroxidase activity in leafy vegetables. LWT Food Sci Technol 37:199–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Ponce A, Roura SI, Moreira MD (2011) Essential oils as biopreservatives: different methods for the technological application in lettuce leaves. J Food Sci 76:M34–M40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Rabeendran N, Jones EE, Moot DJ et al (2006) Biocontrol of Sclerotinia lettuce drop by Coniothyrium minitans and Trichoderma hamatum. Biol Control 39:352–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Raynal C, Julhia L, Nicot P (2014a) Fertilisation et sensibilité des cultures de laitue et de tomate aux bioagresseurs. Innov Agronomiques 34:1–17Google Scholar
  124. Raynal C, Nicot P, Julhia L et al (2014b) Fertilisation et sensibilité des cultures légumières aux bioagresseurs. Une recherche appliquée à la laitue. Infos Ctifl 300:62–67Google Scholar
  125. Reddy GVP, Manjunatha M (2000) Laboratory and field studies on the integrated pest management of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) in cotton, based on pheromone trap catch threshold level. J Appl Entomol 124:213–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Reuveni R, Raviv M, Krasnovsky A et al (2002) Compost induces protection against Fusarium oxysporum in sweet basil. Crop Prot 21:583–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Ryckeboer J, Mergaert J, Coosemans J et al (2003) Microbiological aspects of biowaste during composting in a monitored compost bin. J Appl Microbiol 94:127–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Sanyal D, Shrestha A (2008) Direct effect of herbicides on plant pathogens and disease development in various cropping systems. Weed Sci 56(1):155–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Sauer-Kesper C, Lucia N, Buser H et al (2011) The new biotype Nr:1 of the currant lettuce aphid: its distribution and impact on Swiss lettuce production. Rech Agronomique Suisse 10:462–469Google Scholar
  130. Scheuerell SJ, Sullivan DM, Mahaffee WF (2005) Suppression of seedling damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum, P. irregulare, and Rhizoctonia solani in container media amended with a diverse range of Pacific Northwest compost sources. Phytopathology 95:306–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Scott JC, Kirkpatrick SC, Gordon TR (2010a) Variation in susceptibility of lettuce cultivars to fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lactucae. Plant Pathol 59:139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Scott JC, Gordon TR, Shaw DV et al (2010b) Effect of temperature on severity of fusarium wilt of lettuce caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae. Plant Dis 94:13–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Scott JC, McRoberts DN, Gordon TR (2014) Colonization of lettuce cultivars and rotation crops by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lactucae, the cause of fusarium wilt of lettuce. Plant Pathol 63:548–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Seiber J, Coats J, Duke SO et al (2014) Biopesticides: state of the art and future opportunities. J Agric Food Chem 62:11613–11619PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Shennan C, Muramoto J, Lamers J et al (2014) Anaerobic soil disinfestation for soil borne disease control in strawberry and vegetable systems: current knowledge and future directions. Acta Hortic 1044:157–165Google Scholar
  136. Shrestha U, Augé R, Butler M (2016) A meta-analysis of the impact of anaerobic soil disinfestation on pest suppression and yield of horticultural crops. Front Plant Sci 7:1254–1274PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  137. Shrestha G, Skovgård H, Reddy VPG et al (2017) Role of the aphid species and their feeding locations in parasitization behavior of Aphelinus abdominalis, a parasitoid of the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri. PLoS One 12(8):e0184080PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Skirvin DJ, Kravar-Garde L, Reynolds K et al (2011) The effect of within-crop habitat manipulations on the conservation biological control of aphids in field grown lettuce. Bull Entomol Res 101:623–631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Smith HA, Chaney WE, Bensen TA (2007) Role of syrphid larvae and others predators in suppressing aphid infestations in organic lettuce on Californian central coast. J Econ Entomol 101:1526–1532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Smolińska U, Kowalska B, Kowalczyk W et al (2016) Eradication of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum sclerotia from soil using organic waste materials as Trichoderma fungi carriers. J Hortic Res 24:101–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Sowley ENK, Dewey FM, Shaw MW (2010) Persistent, symptomless, systemic and seed-borne infection of lettuce by Botrytis cinerea. Eur J Plant Pathol 126:61–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Spadaro D, Agusti N, Franco-Ortega S et al (2018) Diagnostics and identification of diseases, insects and mites. In: Integrated pest and disease management in greenhouse crops. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  143. Speiser B, Kistler C (2002) Field tests with a molluscicide containing iron phosphate. Crop Prot 21(5):389–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Subbarao KV, Davis RM, Gilberson RL, Raid RN (eds) (2017) Compendium of lettuce diseases and pest. APS Press, St. PaulGoogle Scholar
  145. Taylor A, Clarkson J (2018) Technical review on lettuce Fusariu006D wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae. AHDB Hortic, CP17/18-1006 projectGoogle Scholar
  146. Termorshuizen AJ, van Rijn E, van der Gaag DJ et al (2006) Suppressiveness of 18 composts against 7 pathosystems: variability in pathogen response. Soil Biol Biochem 38:2461–2477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Thabuis APP, Teekens KC, Van Herwijnen ZO (2011) Lettuce that is resistant to the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri Biotype1. WO Patent WO/2011/058,192Google Scholar
  148. Thao HTB, Yamakawa T (2009) Phosphite (phosphorous acid): fungicide, fertilizer or bio-stimulator? Soil Sci Plant Nutr 55(2):228–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Vallad GE, Qin Q-M, Grube RC et al (2006) Characterization of race-specific interaction among isolates of Verticillium dahliae in lettuce. Plant Dis 89:317–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. van Lenteren JC (2012) The state of commercial augmentative biological control: plenty of natural enemies, but a frustrating lack of uptake. Biol Control 57:1–20Google Scholar
  151. Vos CMF, Cremer KD, Cammue BPA et al (2015) The toolbox of Trichoderma spp. in the biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea disease. Mol Plant Pathol 16:400–412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Walker MK, Stufkens MAW, Wallace AR (2007) Indirect non-target effects of insecticides on Tasmanian brown lacewing (Micromus tasmaniae) from feeding on lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribisnigri). Biol Control 43(1):31–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Walters DR, Fountaine JM (2009) Practical application of induced resistance to plant diseases: an appraisal of effectiveness under field conditions. J Agric Sci 147:523–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Woltz SS, Jones JP (1981) Nutritional requirements of Fusarium oxysporum: basis for a disease control system. In: Nelson PE, Toussoun TA, Cook RJ (eds) Fusarium: diseases, biology, and taxonomy. Penn State University Press, University Park, pp 340–349Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CTIFL, unité Santé des Plantes et Système de Production, Centre de BalandranBellegardeFrance
  2. 2.Agroinnova, Centre for Innovation in the Agro-Environmental SectorUniversity of TorinoGrugliascoItaly

Personalised recommendations