Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis

  • Arezou Abbasi
  • Amir A. Rahnemai-Azar
  • Sean M. Ronnekleiv-Kelly
  • Daniel E. Abbott
  • Sharon M. WeberEmail author


Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second most common primary liver tumor after hepatocellular carcinoma. In recent years, there has been an increasing trend in the incidence and mortality rate of ICC worldwide. In general, the outcome of patients with ICC is dismal, mainly due to late diagnosis and lack of effective treatment options. Detection of the tumor at early stages may make surgical resection, as the only potentially curative treatment, more feasible. Identifying ICC-specific diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers has been a focus of interest among many investigators. Unfortunately, despite recent developments in imaging modalities and laboratory tests, the diagnosis of ICC remains challenging and the majority of patients are not amenable to surgical resection at the time of presentation. Herein, we provide an overview of the current modalities used in the diagnosis of ICC.


Biliary tract cancer Liver tumor Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma Diagnosis Biomarker Imaging 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arezou Abbasi
    • 1
  • Amir A. Rahnemai-Azar
    • 2
  • Sean M. Ronnekleiv-Kelly
    • 2
  • Daniel E. Abbott
    • 2
  • Sharon M. Weber
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of Washington Medical CenterSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical OncologyUniversity of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public HealthMadisonUSA

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