Toxicologic Hazards of Solvents, Gases, Vapors, and Other Chemicals
This chapter deals with toxicologic hazards of solvents (alcohols, glycols, and petroleum), toxic gases and vapors (carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, oxides of nitrogen, cyanide gas, gaseous ammonia, smoke inhalation, phosphine gas, etc.), organic compounds, brominated flame retardants, perfluorinated agents, persistent halogenated aromatic products, coat tar products, pentachlorophenols, and household products (chlorine bleaches, detergents, soaps and shampoos, etc.) In animals, among these chemicals, household chemicals (e.g., products containing alcohols, bleaches, or corrosives) found in the home represent a risk of toxicosis if companion animals are exposed to concentrates or undiluted products, but casual exposure to areas in which these compounds have been used appropriately rarely causes any serious problems. However, hydrogen sulfide (H2S; “sewer gas,” “swamp gas,” “sour gas,” and “stink damp”) is most commonly encountered as a by-product of the decomposition of sulfur-containing organic material. In general, the toxic effects of multiple solvents are additive; solvents may also interact synergistically or antagonistically.
KeywordsToxic solvents Vapors Toxic gases Household products Alcohol toxicity Inhalants Question and answer bank Multiple choice questions
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