The Infrastructure for African Unity
This chapter attempts to reconcile the past of Pan-Africanism with its future. Today’s idea of Pan-Africanism has been institutionalized through Africa’s continental organizations, notably, the African Union (AU), formerly the Organization of African Unity (OAU), as well as through Africa’s regional organizations including the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the Southern African Development Community (SADC), and the East African Community (EAC). The rise of these organizations constitutes a continuum, vis-à-vis the long tradition of continental unification and Pan-Africanism.
- Addona, A.F. 1969. The Organization of African Unity. New York: The Word Publishing Company.Google Scholar
- Amate, C.O.C. 1986. Inside the OAU: Pan-Africanism in Practice. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
- Butcher, Tim. 2002. Gaddafi casts a shadow over African Union. Africa Correspondent. Available online at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/07/08/wau08.xml. Accessed 21 July 2009.
- Chambas, Mohamed. 2009. ECOWAS of the People: Towards a Democratic and Prosperous Community. Available on the website of ECOWAS at http://www.ecowasvision2020.org. Accessed 14 Aug 2009.
- Cohen, Roberta and William G. O’Neill. 2006. Last Stand in Sudan?. Brookings Institution. Available online at http://www.brookings.edu/articles/2006/spring_darfur_cohen02.aspx. Accessed 14 Aug 2009.Google Scholar
- Conteh-Morgan, Earl. 1998. Peacekeeping in Africa Ecomog in Liberia. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
- Daima, Amani. 2002. ‘The Biggest Show’ in Africa: The Launching of the African Union. PanAfrica. Available online at http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe. Accessed 23 July 2009.
- Dynes, Michael. 2002. The Delusions of Gaddafi, Emperor of Africa. The Times (London). Available online at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/07/08/wau08.xml. Accessed 21 July 2009.
- Edi, Eric. 2007. Globalization and Politics in the Economic Community of West African States. Durham: Carolina Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Ero, Comfort. 2000. ECOMOG: A Efor Africa? Published in Monograph 46, Building Stability in Africa: Challenges for the New Millennium, February 2000:1–9.Google Scholar
- Esedebe, Olisanwuche. 1994. Pan-Africanism, the Idea and Movement, 1776–1991. Washington, DC: Howard University Press.Google Scholar
- Essy, Amara. 2002. Amara Essy Discussed the Transformation of the OAU into African Union. African News Services. Available online at web.lexis-nexis.com. Accessed 21 July 2009.
- Gumede, William M. 2001. Mbeki Moves to Steer Union out of Gaddafi’s Clutches. Financial Mail (South Africa). Available online at http://secure.financialmail.co.za/01/0427/currents/ccurrent.htm. Accessed 21 July 2009.
- ———. 2005. Thabo Mbeki and the Battle for the Soul of the ANC. Durban: Struik Publishers.Google Scholar
- Hanson, Stephanie. 2008. The African Union. The Council on Foreign Relations. Available online at http://www.cfr.org/publication/11616/african_union.html. Accessed 14 Aug 2009.
- Khobe, Maxwell. 2000. The Evolution and Conduct of ECOMOG Operations in West Africa. Pretoria, South Africa: The Institute for Security Studies. Monograph No. 44.Google Scholar
- Legum, Colin. 1965. Pan-Africanism: A Short Political Guide. New York: Frederick A. Praeger.Google Scholar
- Mantu, Richard. 2002. African Leaders Pledge to Honour African Union. SABC News. Available online at http://www.sabcnews.com/africa/southern_africa/0,1009,38247,00.html. Accessed 9 July 2008.
- Mbeki, Thabo. 2002. Letter to Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chretien. Available online at https://sarpn.org/documents/d0000137/index.php
- Mortimer, Robert A. 1996. ECOMOG, Liberia, and Regional Security in West Africa. In Africa in the New International Order: Rethinking State Sovereignty and Regional Security, ed. J. Edmond, 149–164. Keller & Donald Rothchild.Google Scholar
- Nevin, Tom. 2002. Exit OAU, Enter AU. African Business. Available online at web7.infotrac.galegroup.com/itw/informark/845/671/25523484w7/purl=rc1_EAIM. Sept. Accessed 21 July 2009.
- Nivet, Sebastien. 2006. Security by Proxy: The EU and (Sub) Regional Organizations: The Case of ECOWAS. Paris: Institute for Security Studies.Google Scholar
- Nkrumah, Kwame. 1963. Africa Must Unite. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, Inc.Google Scholar
- Oakley, Robin. 2001. OAU’s Questionable Purpose and Prospects. CNN World. Available online at http://edition.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/africa/07/09/africa.oau/. Accessed 28 July 2019.
- Parkinson, Rhonda. 2002. G8 Summit – The Africa Action Plan. Canadian Politics. Available online at www.suite101.com/article.cfm/6673/93835, July 26, 2002. Accessed 21 July 2008.
- Peta, Basildon. 2002. Gaddafi Aims to Hijack African Union Organization. The Independent (London). Available online at: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/gaddafi-aims-to-hijack-african-union
- SAPA News Agency. 2002. President Mbeki Rules Out Support for Single Army for Africa. SAPA News Agency. Available online at http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe. Accessed 23 July 2009.
- Sunday Times. 2002. Al Gaddafi Parades on Mbeki’s Reign. Sunday Times (South Africa). Available online at http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe. Accessed 23 July 2009.
- The Financial Gazette. 2002. God’s Messenger. The Financial Gazette. Available online at http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe. Accessed 23 July 2009.
- Xinha News. 2002. Mbeki Admits Competition in AU Leadership. Xinha News Agency. Available online at http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe. Accessed 23 July 2009.