Learning Behaviors in the Wild: How People Achieve L2 Learning Outside of Class

  • Søren W. EskildsenEmail author
Part of the Educational Linguistics book series (EDUL, volume 38)


This chapter represents a first attempt at building a collection of learning behaviors in L2 speakers’ social practices in the wild. Research has shown that repair, word search activities, and definition talk provide fruitful soil for L2 learning (Brouwer 2003; Eskildsen 2018a; Eskildsen and Theodórsdóttir 2017; Eskildsen and Wagner 2015; Kasper and Burch 2016; Koshik and Seo 2012; Kurhila 2006; Markee 1994; Markee Appl Ling 29:404–427, 2008; Theodórsdóttir 2018; Theodórsdóttir and Eskildsen 2011), but a principled overview of L2 speakers’ learning behaviors when using the L2 outside of class remains to be built. Filling that gap, the chapter shows three distinct learning behaviors: (1) noticing and using new word in word searches; (2) making explicit use of the expert; and (3) re-indexing previously learned items. Consisting of out-of-classroom Danish L2 interactions, the data reveal that word searches may be built in a variety of ways, sequentially and with respect to turn-taking design, but public noticing and use of the new word on the part of the L2 speaker is argued to be a recurring learning behavior in all the examples. The re-indexing of previously learned items follows talk where an L2 speaker has been previously corrected or displayed lack of understanding.


Definition talk Noticing Repair Usage-based linguistics Word search 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Design and CommunicationUniversity of Southern DenmarkSønderborgDenmark

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