Advertisement

Key Themes in Post-War Homelessness

  • Jamie HardingEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

It is the contention of this book that, while the influences on homelessness policy are complex and vary between time periods, there are several factors that have consistently had a strong bearing on policy. The first of these factors, the favoured explanation for homelessness, is complicated by the tendency to view homeless people with dependent children and single homeless people differently. The level of demand for social rented housing varies considerably between geographical areas and is one of the factors that lead to differences in local responses to homelessness. Different types of prevention service may appeal to policy makers under different circumstances.

Keywords

Causes of homelessness Statutory homelessness Single homeless people Demand Geographical differences Prevention 

References

  1. Abel, G., & Wahab, S. (2017). ‘Build a friendship with them’: The discourse of ‘at-risk’ as a barrier to relationship building between young people who trade sex and social workers’. Child and Family Social Work, 22, 1391–1398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alden, S. (2015). On the frontline: The gatekeeper in statutory homelessness services. Housing Studies, 30(6), 924–941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, I., & Morgan, J. (1997). Single people’s access to housing. York, UK: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.Google Scholar
  4. Bache, I. (2003). Governing through governance: Education policy control under New Labour. Political Studies, 51(2), 300–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balloch, S., & Jones, B. (1990). Poverty and anti-poverty strategy: The local government response. London, UK: Association of Metropolitan Authorities.Google Scholar
  6. Bancroft, A., & Wilson, S. (2007). The ‘risk gradient’ in policy on children of drug and alcohol users: Framing young people as risky. Health, Risk and Society, 9(3), 311–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barnett, R., & Lowe, S. (1990). Measuring housing need and the provision of social housing. Housing Studies, 5(3), 184–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benjaminsen, L., & Andrade, S. B. (2015). Testing a typology of homelessness across welfare regimes: Shelter use in Denmark and the USA. Housing Studies, 30(6), 858–876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bevan, M., Kemp, P. A., & Rhodes, D. (1995). Private landlords and housing benefit. York, UK: Centre for Housing Policy, University of York.Google Scholar
  10. Biehal, N., Clayden, J., & Byford, S. (2000). Preventative work with teenagers: Evaluation of an adolescent support team. York, UK: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.Google Scholar
  11. Bines, W. (1994). The health of single homeless people. York, UK: Centre for Housing Policy, University of York.Google Scholar
  12. Bramley, G., & Fitzpatrick, S. (2018). Homelessness in the UK: Who is most at risk? Housing Studies, 33(1), 96–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brandon, D., Wells, K., Francis, C., & Ramsay, E. (1980). The survivors. London, UK: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  14. Brown, J. C. (1990). The focus on single mothers. In R. Lister (Ed.), Charles Murray and the underclass (pp. 61–65). London, UK: Institute of Economic Affairs Health and Welfare Unit.Google Scholar
  15. Brown, K. (2015). Vulnerability and young people. Bristol, UK: Policy Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chartered Institute of Housing. (2018). Rethinking social housing: Final report. Coventry, UK: Chartered Institute of Housing.Google Scholar
  17. Cleary, M., Hunt, G. E., Matheson, S., & Walter, G. (2008). Psychosocial treatment for people with co-occurring severe mental illness and substance misuse: Systematic review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65(2), 238–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Darke, J., Conway, J., & Holman, C. (1993). Homes for our children. London, UK: National Housing Forum.Google Scholar
  19. De Verteuil, G., May, J., & von Mahs, J. (2009). Complexity not collapse: Recasting the geographies of homelessness in a ‘punitive’ age. Progress in Human Geography, 33, 646–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Deacon, N. (1990). Mr Murray’s ark. In R. Lister (Ed.), Charles Murray and the underclass (pp. 75–80). London, UK: Institute of Economic Affairs Health and Welfare Unit.Google Scholar
  21. Department for Communities and Local Government. (2008). Statutory homelessness in England: The experience of families and 16–17 year olds (Homelessness Research Summary Number 7). London, UK: Department for Communities and Local Government.Google Scholar
  22. Department for Communities and Local Government. (2011). Vision to end rough sleeping: No second night out nationwide. London, UK: Department of Communities and Local Government.Google Scholar
  23. Department for Communities and Local Government. (2016). 2014-based household projections: England, 2014–2039. Housing statistical release 12 July 2016. London, UK: Department of Communities and Local Government.Google Scholar
  24. Department of Health. (2002). Dual diagnosis good practice guide. London, UK: Department of Health.Google Scholar
  25. Dwyer, P., & Somerville, P. (2011). Introduction: Themed section on multiple exclusion homelessness. Social Policy and Society, 10(4), 495–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Evans, A. (1999). Rationing device or passport to social housing? The operation of the homelessness legislation in Britain in the 1990s. In S. Hutson & D. Clapham (Eds.), Homelessness: Public policies and private troubles (pp. 133–154). London, UK: Cassell.Google Scholar
  27. Evans, A., & Duncan, S. (1988). Responding to homelessness, local authority policy and practice. London, UK: Department of the Environment.Google Scholar
  28. Exworthy, M., Berney, L., & Powell, M. (2002). How great expectations in Westminster may be dashed locally’: The local implementation of national policy on health inequalities. Policy and Politics, 30(1), 79–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fitzpatrick, S., Johnsen, S., & White, M. (2011). Multiple exclusion homelessness in the UK: Key patterns and intersections. Social Policy and Society, 10(4), 501–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fitzpatrick, S., Pawson, H., Bramley, G., Wilcox, S., Watts, B., & Wood, J. (2017). The homelessness monitor: England 2017. London, UK: Crisis and the Joseph Rowntree Foundation.Google Scholar
  31. Gholam, G. (1993). Before you go. London, UK: Centrepoint, Leaving Home Project.Google Scholar
  32. Gray, C. (1994). Government beyond the centre. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Green, D. G. (1998). Benefit dependency. London, UK: Institute of Economic Affairs Health and Welfare Unit.Google Scholar
  34. Greene, J. (2014). Managing poverty, managing dissent: Homeless politics and collective action in London. Policy and Politics, 42(3), 315–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Griggs, S., & Sullivan, H. (2012). Puzzling agency in centre-local relations: Regulatory governance and accounts of change under New Labour. British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 16(3), 495–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Grimshaw, J. M. (2008). Family homelessness: Causes, consequences and the policy response in England. London, UK: The British Library.Google Scholar
  37. Harding, J. (2004). Making it work—The keys to success for young people living independently. Bristol, UK: Policy Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Harding, J., Irving, A., & Whowell, M. (2011). Homelessness, pathways to exclusion and opportunities for intervention. Newcastle, UK: Northumbria University Arts and Social Sciences Press.Google Scholar
  39. Harding, J., & Keenan, P. (1998). The provision of furnished accommodation by local authorities. Housing Studies, 13(3), 377–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Harding, J., & Kirk, R. (1996). No light at the end of the tunnel: A study of youth homelessness in areas of industrial decline. London, UK: Crisis.Google Scholar
  41. Hill, K., & Hirsch, D. (2019). Family sharing—A minimum income standard for people in their 20s living with parents. Loughborough, UK: Centre for Research in Social Policy, Loughborough University.Google Scholar
  42. Hill, M., & Hupe, P. (2003). The multi-layer problem in implementation research. Public Management Review, 5(4), 471–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Holmans, A. (1995). Housing demand and need in England 1991–2011. York, UK: York Publishing Services Ltd.Google Scholar
  44. Homeless Link. (2014). The unhealthy state of homelessness: Health audit results 2014. London, UK: Homeless Link.Google Scholar
  45. Hutson, S., & Liddiard, M. (1994). Youth homelessness. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Johnsen, S., & Fitzpatrick, S. (2010). Revanchist sanitisation or coercive care? The use of enforcement to combat begging, street drinking and rough sleeping in England. Urban Studies, 47(8), 1703–1723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Johnsen, S., & Teixeira, L. (2012). ‘Doing it already?’: Stakeholder perceptions of Housing First in the UK. International Journal of Housing Policy, 12(2), 183–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Johnson, G., & Chamberlain, C. (2008). Homelessness and substance abuse: Which comes first? Australian Social Work, 61(4), 342–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Johnson, G., Scutella, R., Tseng, Y., & Wood, G. (2015). Entries and exits from homelessness: A dynamic analysis of the relationship between structural conditions and individual characteristics. Melbourne, Australia: Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute.Google Scholar
  50. Jones, A., & Pleace, N. (2010). A review of single homelessness in the UK 2000–2010. London, UK: Crisis and the University of York.Google Scholar
  51. Jones, C., & Murie, A. (1998). Reviewing the right to buy. York, UK: Joseph Rowntree Foundation Findings.Google Scholar
  52. Jones, G. (1995). Leaving home. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Jones, G. (1997). Youth homelessness and the ‘underclass’. In R. MacDonald (Ed.), Youth, the ‘underclass’ and social exclusion (pp. 96–112). London, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  54. Jones, G., & Stephens, J. (1994). Young people in and out of the housing market (Housing Research Findings 108). York, UK: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.Google Scholar
  55. Keenan, P., Lowe, S., & Spencer, S. (1999). Housing abandonment in inner cities—The politics of low demand for housing. Housing Studies, 14(5), 703–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kelly, J. (2006). Central regulation of English local authorities: An example of meta-governance? Public Administration, 84(3), 603–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kemp, P. A., Neale, J., & Robertson, M. (2006). Homelessness among problem drug users: Prevalence, risk factors and trigger events. Health and Social Care in the Community, 14(4), 319–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Killeen, D. (1988). Estranged. Edinburgh, Scotland: Shelter Scottish Campaign for the Homeless.Google Scholar
  59. Kim, M. M., Ford, J. D., Howard, D. L., & Bradford, D. W. (2010). Assessing trauma, substance abuse and mental health in a sample of homeless men. Health and Social Work, 35(1), 39–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Leach, R., & Percy-Smith, J. (2001). Local governance in Britain. London, UK: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lipsky, M. (1980). Street-level bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the individual in public services. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  62. MacDonald, R. (1997). Dangerous youth and the dangerous class. In R. MacDonald (Ed.), Youth, the ‘underclass’ and social exclusion (pp. 96–112). London, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  63. Macnicol, J. (1987). In pursuit of the underclass. Journal of Social Policy, 16(3), 293–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Marsland, D. (1996). Welfare or welfare state? Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. May, J. (2000). Housing histories and homeless careers: A biographical approach. Housing Studies, 15(4), 613–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. McConnell, A. (2018). Rethinking wicked problems as political problems and policy problems. Policy and Politics, 46(1), 165–180.Google Scholar
  67. McKee, K., & Philips, D. (2012). Social housing and homelessness policies. In G. Mooney & G. Scott (Eds.), Social justice and social policy in Scotland (pp. 223–228). Bristol, UK: Policy Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. McNaughton, C. (2008). Transitions through homelessness, substance use, and the effects of material marginalisation and psychological trauma. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 15(2), 177–188.Google Scholar
  69. Mishra, R. (1984). The welfare state in crisis. Brighton, UK: Wheatsheaf Books.Google Scholar
  70. Moseley, A., & James, O. (2008). Central state steering of local collaboration: Assessing the impact of tools of meta-governance in homelessness services in England. Public Organization Review, 8, 117–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Murray, C. (1990). The emerging British underclass. In R. Lister (Ed.), Charles Murray and the underclass (pp. 23–53). London, UK: Institute of Economic Affairs Health and Welfare Unit.Google Scholar
  72. Neale, J. (2001). Homelessness among drug users: A double jeopardy explored. International Journal of Drug Policy, 12, 353–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Niner, P. (1989). Homelessness in nine local authorities: Case studies of policy and practice. London, UK: Department of the Environment, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  74. Parsell, C., & Parsell, M. (2012). Homelessness as a choice. Housing, Theory and Society, 29(4), 420–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pawson, H., & Davidson, E. (2008). Radically divergent? Homelessness policy and practice in post-devolution Scotland. International Journal of Housing Policy, 8(1), 39–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Peters, E. (2012). ‘I like to let them have their time.’ Hidden homeless First Nation people in the city and their management of household relationships. Social and Cultural Geography, 13(4), 321–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Philip, K. (2000). Mentoring: Pitfalls and potential for young people? Youth and Policy, 67, 1–15.Google Scholar
  78. Pleace, N. (1998). Single homelessness as social exclusion: The unique and the extreme. Social Policy and Administration, 32(1), 46–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Pleace, N., Fitzpatrick, S., Johnsen, S., Quilgars, D., & Sanderson, D. (2008). Statutory homelessness in England: The experience of families and 16–17 year olds. London, UK: Department for Communities and Local Government.Google Scholar
  80. Quilgars, D., Johnsen, S., & Pleace, N. (2008). Youth homelessness in the UK: A decade of progress? York, UK: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.Google Scholar
  81. Rassool, G. H. (2006). Understanding dual diagnosis: An overview. In G. H. Rassool (Ed.), Dual diagnosis nursing (pp. 3–15). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Raynsford, N. (2016). Substance not spin: An insider’s view of success and failure in government. Bristol: Policy Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Reeve, K. (2013). The morality of the ‘immoral’: The case of homeless, drug-using street prostitutes. Deviant Behaviour, 34(10), 824–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Reeve, K., Cole, I., Batty, E., Foden, M., Green, S., & Pattison, B. (2016). Home. No less will do: Homeless people’s access to the private rented sector. London, UK: Crisis.Google Scholar
  85. Rowe, S., & Wagstaff, T. (2017). Moving on: Improving access to housing for single homeless people in England. London, UK: Crisis.Google Scholar
  86. Rubington, E., & Weinberg, M. S. (1995). The study of social problems (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  87. Sherwood-Johnson, F. (2013). Constructions of ‘vulnerability’ in comparative perspective: Scottish protection policies and the trouble with ‘adults at risk. Disability and Society, 28(7), 908–921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Shinn, M., Baumohl, J., & Hopper, K. (2001). The prevention of homelessness revisited. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 1(1), 95–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Somerville, P. (1999). The making and unmaking of homelessness legislation. In S. Hutson & D. Clapham (Eds.), Homelessness: Public policies and private troubles (pp. 29–57). London, UK: Cassell.Google Scholar
  90. Somerville, P. (2013). Understanding homelessness. Housing, Theory and Society, 30(4), 384–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Stephens, M., & Fitzpatrick, S. (2007). Welfare regimes, housing systems and homelessness: How are they linked? European Journal of Homelessness, 1, 201–212.Google Scholar
  92. Stephens, M., Fitzpatrick, S., Marja, E., Van Steen, G., & Chzen, Y. (2010). Study on housing exclusion: Welfare policies, labour market and housing provision. Edinburgh, Scotland: Heriot-Watt University.Google Scholar
  93. Venn, S. (1985). Singled out. London, UK: CHAR (Campaign for Single Homeless People).Google Scholar
  94. Walker, A. (1990). Blaming the victims. In R. Lister (Ed.), Charles Murray and the underclass (pp. 66–74). London, UK: Institute of Economic Affairs Health and Welfare Unit.Google Scholar
  95. Watson, S., & Austerberry, H. (1986). Housing and homelessness: A feminist perspective. London, UK: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  96. Wilcox, S., Perry, J., & Williams, P. (2015). UK housing review: 2015 briefing paper. Coventry, UK: Chartered Institute of Housing.Google Scholar
  97. Wiles, J. (2011). Reflections on being a recipient of care: Vexing the concept of vulnerability. Social and Cultural Geography, 12(6), 573–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Northumbria UniversityNewcastle upon TyneUK

Personalised recommendations