Modelling the Concentration of Ammonia and Exceedance of the Critical Level in the UK
The FRAME atmospheric chemistry transport model was applied to calculate the concentration of NH3 at a 1 km resolution over the UK. The results showed that the 1 μg m−3 critical level for NH3 was exceeded for 60% of the UK land area and the 3 μg m−3 critical level was exceeded for 3% of the land area. Model simulations using historical emissions suggested that average NH3 concentrations in the UK have increased by a factor of 2.5 between 1970 and 2010 due to both an increase in NH3 emissions and large reductions in SO2 emissions causing a reduction in the availability of H2SO4 to react with NH3.
KeywordsAmmonia Critical level Exceedance Atmospheric chemistry
This work was funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council and the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.
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