The energy market is the largest market in the world after currencies. The two most significant drivers of energy demand are population and income growth. Since the start of the twentieth century, the world’s population has more than quadrupled, with real income and primary energy consumption growing by factors of 25 and 22.5, respectively. Over the twentieth century, the global annual average 3% GDP growth rate was sustained by an annual 2% growth rate in the energy supply, while energy consumption increased from an annual equivalent of 4 barrels (23.2 MM Btu) to 13 barrels (75.4 MM Btu) of oil per person.
- BP Energy Outlook 2018.Google Scholar
- Challa, R. Discovering multiple interacting options, Energy and Power Risk Management, July 2000.Google Scholar
- Chignell, S, Robert Gross, R. Not locked-in? The overlooked impact of new gas-fired generation investment on long-term decarbonisation – A case study of lock-in to new CCGT in the UK, Imperial College Centre for Energy Policy and Technology Working Paper Ref: ICEPT/WP/2010/012, May 2012.Google Scholar
- Clancy, H. Microsoft has figured out a way to reduce risks associated with PPAs, Greenbiz.com, October 16 2018.
- Clewlow, L. and Strickland, C. Energy Derivatives, Pricing and Risk Management, Lacima, 2000.Google Scholar
- Clewlow, L. and Strickland, C. Implementing Derivative Models, Wiley, 1998.Google Scholar
- Financial Times. Sheppard D, Raval, A. Oil producers face their life or death question, June 19 2018.Google Scholar
- Financial Times. Sheppard, D. Peak Oil forecast for 2036, July 2018.Google Scholar
- Fortune. Ball, J. Shell Faces Lower Forever, February 1 2018.Google Scholar
- IEA Key World Energy Statistics 2018.Google Scholar
- IEA New Policies/Sustainable Policies.Google Scholar
- IEA World Energy Outlook 2018.Google Scholar
- Johnson, K, Thomas, N. Wind farm control addressing the aerodynamic interaction among wind turbines, 2009 American Control Conference, St Louis, Missouri, 2009.Google Scholar
- Kirk, E, Correlation in the energy markets, Managing Energy Price Risk, Risk Publications (1995).Google Scholar
- MIT Energy Initiative. The future of solar energy, 2015.Google Scholar
- Parkinson, G. New solar “firming” contracts to boost corporate demand for big solar farms. reneweconomy.com, April 23 2018.
- Shell energy transition report 2018.Google Scholar
- U.S. Energy Information Administration Outlook 2017.Google Scholar
- Wind Energy Explained: Theory, Design and Application, J F Manwell, J G McGowan and A L Rogers, 2nd edition, John Wiley and Sons, 2009.Google Scholar
- World Wind Energy Report 2019.Google Scholar