The History of ARDS and the Need for a Pediatric Definition

  • Howard Eigen


The history of ARDS is long, complex, and very interesting. The definition has been complicated by the usage of a multitude of descriptive terms (e.g., wet lung, shock lung, Da Nang lung) that were synonymous with conditions now grouped under the modern definition of ARDS. Formally described in 1967, the definition of ARDS has evolved over the past 5 decades. In the absence of a standard definition, ARDS diagnosis is established when certain criteria are met in the framework of the prevailing ARDS definition. The American-European Consensus Conference definition (1995) and the Berlin definition (2012) have refined our ability to diagnose, study, and treat ARDS, but these adult-centric definitions were not developed for children with ARDS and had their shortcomings. To address this issue, the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference (PALICC) was convened to develop, among other recommendations, a specific definition for pediatric ARDS (PARDS). This new definition establishes a common language for those caring for children with PARDS and opens the door for meaningful and sustained international collaboration and rapid scientific progress.


Infant respiratory distress syndrome Adult respiratory distress syndrome Acute respiratory distress syndrome Wet lung Respiratory failure Pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome Lung injury 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Howard Eigen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsIndiana University School of Medicine; Riley Hospital for ChildrenIndianapolisUSA

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