• Guoping CaiEmail author


This chapter outlines practical approaches for rapid on-site assessment during fine needle aspiration or biopsy of liver lesions. It is important to classify the lesions into primary hepatocyte lesions, primary bile duct lesion lesions, and metastatic tumors. Well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma or well-differentiated cholangiocarcinoma may impose diagnostic challenges based on cytological features alone, and follow-up with core needle biopsy may aid a definite diagnosis. In cases suspected for metastatic tumors, morphologic comparison with primary tumors is important and additional specimen should be saved for ancillary studies. The chapter provides cytomorphologic features and diagnostic pitfalls of commonly encountered liver lesions.


Fine needle aspiration Live Cyst Hepatocyte Bile duct Hepatocellular carcinoma Cholangiocarcinoma Metastasis 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

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