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Advances in Functional Genomics in Investigating Salinity Tolerance in Plants

  • Joydeep Banerjee
  • Arpita Das
  • Maryam Vahedi
  • Saikat Gantait
Chapter

Abstract

Soil salinity has diverse effects on the morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics of plants, which results in reduction in yield. Excessive salt exposure induces morphological and anatomical changes that include a reduction in the dry weight of leaves and roots, root length, root volume, average root diameter, chlorophyll and net photosynthesis, and stomatal conductance. A number of genes were found to be involved in salt tolerance across diverse plant genera. Through functional genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics approaches the functional significance of some of the major genes has been discovered that play pivotal role in salt tolerance of plants. A number of transgenic approaches have been taken to over-express genes involved in salt-tolerant mechanisms and in addition to that down-regulation of some important genes in transgenic plants also demonstrated salt tolerance. Recently, due to the advancement of genomics, several genomic information are available in public database and furthermore, transcriptomics studies identified several genes directly or indirectly involved in salt tolerance. This chapter specifically describes the over-expression or down-regulation of different candidate genes for mitigating salt tolerance in plants. Along with different functional genomics strategies, how recent researches on microRNA (miRNA) revealed a new field in understanding as well as combating salt stress, have been discussed in this chapter. More recently, another concept has come in the biotechnological research area where a plant genome can be edited in a target-oriented manner. This chapter also summarizes how genome editing is helpful in controlling the detrimental effects of salt stress.

Keywords

Gene-silencing Genome editing miRNA Over-expression Salt stress 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Authors acknowledge the library assistance from the Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur and Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal, India. We further are thankful to the reviewer(s)/editor(s) of this chapter for their comments and suggestions on the manuscript.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agricultural and Food EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology KharagpurKharagpur, Paschim MidnaporeIndia
  2. 2.Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of AgricultureBidhan Chandra Krishi ViswavidyalayaNadiaIndia
  3. 3.Regional Research Sub-Station, New Alluvial ZoneBidhan Chandra Krishi ViswavidyalayaNadiaIndia
  4. 4.Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Engineering, College of Agriculture and Natural ResourcesUniversity of TehranKarajIran
  5. 5.Crop Research UnitBidhan Chandra Krishi ViswavidyalayaNadiaIndia

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