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Genome Editing and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants

  • Giridara Kumar Surabhi
  • Bijayalaxmi Badajena
  • Santosh Kumar Sahoo
Chapter

Abstract

Abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, high temperature, chilling, and heavy metals have caused alterations in plant growth and development, threatening crop yield and quality, and leading to global food insecurity. In this aspect, plant breeders have developed many genetic engineering approaches to enhance crop productivity, which are not able to meet the demand of food production as the inheritance of abiotic stress tolerance is so complex. To overcome the limitations of genetic engineering techniques, plant breeders are now focusing on recent availability of genome editing because of its simplicity, high efficiency, and precise target modification at genomic loci for developing abiotic stress-tolerant crops. Advancements in genome editing technologies such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas9) have made it possible for molecular biologists to more precisely target any gene of interest. However, ZFNs and TALENs are costly and protracted as they involve intricate steps that require protein engineering. Among these techniques, CRISPR/Cas9 is widely used for reasons of its simplicity, low cost, and ease of genome editing. This chapter focuses on the application of recent genome editing tools in advancing abiotic stress tolerance in different crop plants.

Keywords

Abiotic stress ZFN CRISPR TALEN Drought Salinity Cold Heavy metals 

Abbreviations

Cas9

CRISPR-associated protein 9

CRISPR

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats

DSB

Double-strand breaks

GE

Genome editing/Genetic engineering

GP

Germination percentage

GR

Germination rate

HDR

Homology directed repair

HR

Homologous recombination

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

NHEJ

Nonhomologous end-joining

TAL

Transcription activator-like

TALEN

Transcription activation-like effector nucleases

TrugRNA

Truncated RNA

ZFN

Zinc finger nucleases

Notes

Acknowledgments

Work in the laboratory of GKS is supported by the Forest and Environment Department, Government of Odisha, India, and is gratefully acknowledged. The authors apologize for being unable to cite all relevant papers.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giridara Kumar Surabhi
    • 1
  • Bijayalaxmi Badajena
    • 1
  • Santosh Kumar Sahoo
    • 1
  1. 1.Plant Molecular Biology and ‘OMICS’ LaboratoryRegional Plant Resource CentreBhubaneswarIndia

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