• Hans Abbing


In this short concluding chapter, I present a selection of findings in the book. I stress the importance of the own art of social groups. The underrepresentation of lower educated and migrant groups is less in the popular arts with its commercial markets than in the subsidized serious arts. Governments can do better than they have done so far. More art could be free, or be cheaper, for less well-to-do people. For middle-class people, the arts have become less exclusive. A further democratization is possible.


  1. Abbing, H. (2014a). Inner Art World Exploitation of Artists. Presented at the Yearly Conference of Seoul Foundation for Arts and Culture, Seoul. Retrieved from
  2. Abbing, H. (2014b). Notes on the Exploitation of Artists. In Joy Forever: The Political Economy of Social Creativity. MayFlyBooks (also available as pdf).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans Abbing
    • 1
  1. 1.AmsterdamThe Netherlands

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